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Man Pages
yadm(1) FreeBSD General Commands Manual yadm(1)

yadm - Yet Another Dotfiles Manager

yadm command [options]
yadm git-command-or-alias [options]
yadm init [-f] [-w directory]
yadm clone url [-f] [-w directory] [--bootstrap] [--no-bootstrap]
yadm config name [value]
yadm config [-e]
yadm list [-a]
yadm bootstrap
yadm encrypt
yadm enter
yadm decrypt [-l]
yadm alt
yadm perms
yadm introspect category

yadm is a tool for managing a collection of files across multiple computers, using a shared Git repository. In addition, yadm provides a feature to select alternate versions of files based on the operating system or host name. Lastly, yadm supplies the ability to manage a subset of secure files, which are encrypted before they are included in the repository.

git-command or git-alias
Any command not internally handled by yadm is passed through to git(1). Git commands or aliases are invoked with the yadm managed repository. The working directory for Git commands will be the configured work-tree (usually $HOME).
Dotfiles are managed by using standard git commands; add, commit, push, pull, etc.
The config command is not passed directly through. Instead use the gitconfig command (see below).
alt
Create symbolic links and process Jinja templates for any managed files matching the naming rules described in the ALTERNATES and JINJA sections. It is usually unnecessary to run this command, as yadm automatically processes alternates by default. This automatic behavior can be disabled by setting the configuration yadm.auto-alt to "false".
bootstrap
Execute $HOME/.yadm/bootstrap if it exists.
clone url
Clone a remote repository for tracking dotfiles. After the contents of the remote repository have been fetched, a "merge" of origin/master is attempted. If there are conflicting files already present in the work-tree, this merge will fail and instead a "reset" of origin/master will be done, followed by a "stash". This "stash" operation will preserve the original data.
You can review the stashed conflicts by running the command
yadm stash show -p
from within your $HOME directory. If you want to restore the stashed data, you can run
yadm stash apply
or
yadm stash pop
The repository is stored in $HOME/.yadm/repo.git. By default, $HOME will be used as the work-tree, but this can be overridden with the -w option. yadm can be forced to overwrite an existing repository by providing the -f option. By default yadm will ask the user if the bootstrap program should be run (if it exists). The options --bootstrap or --no-bootstrap will either force the bootstrap to be run, or prevent it from being run, without prompting the user.
config
This command manages configurations for yadm. This command works exactly they way git-config(1) does. See the CONFIGURATION section for more details.
decrypt
Decrypt all files stored in $HOME/.yadm/files.gpg. Files decrypted will be relative to the configured work-tree (usually $HOME). Using the -l option will list the files stored without extracting them.
encrypt
Encrypt all files matching the patterns found in $HOME/.yadm/encrypt. See the ENCRYPTION section for more details.
enter
Run a sub-shell with all Git variables set. Exit the sub-shell the same way you leave your normal shell (usually with the "exit" command). This sub-shell can be used to easily interact with your yadm repository using "git" commands. This could be useful if you are using a tool which uses Git directly. For example, Emacs Tramp and Magit can manage files by using this configuration:

(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
'("yadm"
(tramp-login-program "yadm")
(tramp-login-args (("enter")))
(tramp-remote-shell "/bin/sh")
(tramp-remote-shell-args ("-c"))))
gitconfig
Pass options to the git config command. Since yadm already uses the config command to manage its own configurations, this command is provided as a way to change configurations of the repository managed by yadm. One useful case might be to configure the repository so untracked files are shown in status commands. yadm initially configures its repository so that untracked files are not shown. If you wish use the default Git behavior (to show untracked files and directories), you can remove this configuration.
yadm gitconfig --unset status.showUntrackedFiles
help
Print a summary of yadm commands.
init
Initialize a new, empty repository for tracking dotfiles. The repository is stored in $HOME/.yadm/repo.git. By default, $HOME will be used as the work-tree, but this can be overridden with the -w option. yadm can be forced to overwrite an existing repository by providing the -f option.
list
Print a list of files managed by yadm. The -a option will cause all managed files to be listed. Otherwise, the list will only include files from the current directory or below.
introspect category
Report internal yadm data. Supported categories are commands, configs, repo, and switches. The purpose of introspection is to support command line completion.
perms
Update permissions as described in the PERMISSIONS section. It is usually unnecessary to run this command, as yadm automatically processes permissions by default. This automatic behavior can be disabled by setting the configuration yadm.auto-perms to "false".
version
Print the version of yadm.

yadm supports a set of universal options that alter the paths it uses. The default paths are documented in the FILES section. Any path specified by these options must be fully qualified. If you always want to override one or more of these paths, it may be useful to create an alias for the yadm command. For example, the following alias could be used to override the repository directory.
alias yadm='yadm --yadm-repo /alternate/path/to/repo'
The following is the full list of universal options. Each option should be followed by a fully qualified path.
-Y,--yadm-dir
Override the yadm directory. yadm stores its data relative to this directory.
--yadm-repo
Override the location of the yadm repository.
--yadm-config
Override the location of the yadm configuration file.
--yadm-encrypt
Override the location of the yadm encryption configuration.
--yadm-archive
Override the location of the yadm encrypted files archive.
--yadm-bootstrap
Override the location of the yadm bootstrap program.

yadm uses a configuration file named $HOME/.yadm/config. This file uses the same format as git-config(1). Also, you can control the contents of the configuration file via the yadm config command (which works exactly like git-config). For example, to disable alternates you can run the command:
yadm config yadm.auto-alt false
The following is the full list of supported configurations:
yadm.auto-alt
Disable the automatic linking described in the section ALTERNATES. If disabled, you may still run yadm alt manually to create the alternate links. This feature is enabled by default.
yadm.auto-perms
Disable the automatic permission changes described in the section PERMISSIONS. If disabled, you may still run yadm perms manually to update permissions. This feature is enabled by default.
yadm.auto-private-dirs
Disable the automatic creating of private directories described in the section PERMISSIONS.
yadm.ssh-perms
Disable the permission changes to $HOME/.ssh/*. This feature is enabled by default.
yadm.gpg-perms
Disable the permission changes to $HOME/.gnupg/*. This feature is enabled by default.
yadm.gpg-recipient
Asymmetrically encrypt files with a gpg public/private key pair. Provide a "key ID" to specify which public key to encrypt with. The key must exist in your public keyrings. If left blank or not provided, symmetric encryption is used instead. If set to "ASK", gpg will interactively ask for recipients. See the ENCRYPTION section for more details. This feature is disabled by default.
yadm.gpg-program
Specify an alternate program to use instead of "gpg". By default, the first "gpg" found in $PATH is used.
yadm.git-program
Specify an alternate program to use instead of "git". By default, the first "git" found in $PATH is used.
yadm.cygwin-copy
If set to "true", for Cygwin hosts, alternate files will be copies instead of symbolic links. This might be desirable, because non-Cygwin software may not properly interpret Cygwin symlinks.
These last four "local" configurations are not stored in the $HOME/.yadm/config, they are stored in the local repository.
local.class
Specify a CLASS for the purpose of symlinking alternate files. By default, no CLASS will be matched.
local.os
Override the OS for the purpose of symlinking alternate files.
local.hostname
Override the HOSTNAME for the purpose of symlinking alternate files.
local.user
Override the USER for the purpose of symlinking alternate files.

When managing a set of files across different systems, it can be useful to have an automated way of choosing an alternate version of a file for a different operating system, host, or user. yadm implements a feature which will automatically create a symbolic link to the appropriate version of a file, as long as you follow a specific naming convention. yadm can detect files with names ending in any of the following:

##
##CLASS
##CLASS.OS
##CLASS.OS.HOSTNAME
##CLASS.OS.HOSTNAME.USER
##OS
##OS.HOSTNAME
##OS.HOSTNAME.USER
If there are any files managed by yadm´s repository, or listed in $HOME/.yadm/encrypt, which match this naming convention, symbolic links will be created for the most appropriate version. This may best be demonstrated by example. Assume the following files are managed by yadm´s repository:

- $HOME/path/example.txt##
- $HOME/path/example.txt##Work
- $HOME/path/example.txt##Darwin
- $HOME/path/example.txt##Darwin.host1
- $HOME/path/example.txt##Darwin.host2
- $HOME/path/example.txt##Linux
- $HOME/path/example.txt##Linux.host1
- $HOME/path/example.txt##Linux.host2
If running on a Macbook named "host2", yadm will create a symbolic link which looks like this:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##Darwin.host2
However, on another Mackbook named "host3", yadm will create a symbolic link which looks like this:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##Darwin
Since the hostname doesn't match any of the managed files, the more generic version is chosen.
If running on a Linux server named "host4", the link will be:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##Linux
If running on a Solaris server, the link use the default "##" version:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##
If running on a system, with CLASS set to "Work", the link will be:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##WORK
If no "##" version exists and no files match the current CLASS/OS/HOSTNAME/USER, then no link will be created.
Links are also created for directories named this way, as long as they have at least one yadm managed file within them.
CLASS must be manually set using yadm config local.class <class>. OS is determined by running uname -s, HOSTNAME by running hostname, and USER by running id -u -n. yadm will automatically create these links by default. This can be disabled using the yadm.auto-alt configuration. Even if disabled, links can be manually created by running yadm alt.
It is possible to use "%" as a "wildcard" in place of CLASS, OS, HOSTNAME, or USER. For example, The following file could be linked for any host when the user is "harvey".
$HOME/path/example.txt##%.%.harvey
CLASS is a special value which is stored locally on each host (inside the local repository). To use alternate symlinks using CLASS, you must set the value of class using the configuration local.class. This is set like any other yadm configuration with the yadm config command. The following sets the CLASS to be "Work".

yadm config local.class Work
Similarly, the values of OS, HOSTNAME, and USER can be manually overridden using the configuration options local.os, local.hostname, and local.user.

If the envtpl command is available, Jinja templates will also be processed to create or overwrite real files. yadm will treat files ending in

##yadm.j2
as Jinja templates. During processing, the following variables are set according to the rules explained in the ALTERNATES section:

YADM_CLASS
YADM_OS
YADM_HOSTNAME
YADM_USER
In addition YADM_DISTRO is exposed as the value of lsb_release -si if lsb_release is locally available.
For example, a file named whatever##yadm.j2 with the following content

{% if YADM_USER == 'harvey' -%}
config={{YADM_CLASS}}-{{ YADM_OS }}
{% else -%}
config=dev-whatever
{% endif -%}
would output a file named whatever with the following content if the user is "harvey":

config=work-Linux
and the following otherwise:

config=dev-whatever
See http://jinja.pocoo.org/ for an overview of Jinja.

It can be useful to manage confidential files, like SSH or GPG keys, across multiple systems. However, doing so would put plain text data into a Git repository, which often resides on a public system. yadm implements a feature which can make it easy to encrypt and decrypt a set of files so the encrypted version can be maintained in the Git repository. This feature will only work if the gpg(1) command is available.
To use this feature, a list of patterns must be created and saved as $HOME/.yadm/encrypt. This list of patterns should be relative to the configured work-tree (usually $HOME). For example:

.ssh/*.key
.gnupg/*.gpg
Standard filename expansions (*, ?, [) are supported. Other shell expansions like brace and tilde are not supported. Spaces in paths are supported, and should not be quoted. If a directory is specified, its contents will be included, but not recursively. Paths beginning with a "!" will be excluded.
The yadm encrypt command will find all files matching the patterns, and prompt for a password. Once a password has confirmed, the matching files will be encrypted and saved as $HOME/.yadm/files.gpg. The patterns and files.gpg should be added to the yadm repository so they are available across multiple systems.
To decrypt these files later, or on another system run yadm decrypt and provide the correct password. After files are decrypted, permissions are automatically updated as described in the PERMISSIONS section.
Symmetric encryption is used by default, but asymmetric encryption may be enabled using the yadm.gpg-recipient configuration.
NOTE: It is recommended that you use a private repository when keeping confidential files, even though they are encrypted.

When files are checked out of a Git repository, their initial permissions are dependent upon the user's umask. Because of this, yadm will automatically update the permissions of some file paths. The "group" and "others" permissions will be removed from the following files:
- $HOME/.yadm/files.gpg
- All files matching patterns in $HOME/.yadm/encrypt
- The SSH directory and files, .ssh/*
- The GPG directory and files, .gnupg/*
yadm will automatically update permissions by default. This can be disabled using the yadm.auto-perms configuration. Even if disabled, permissions can be manually updated by running yadm perms. The .ssh directory processing can be disabled using the yadm.ssh-perms configuration. The .gnupg directory processing can be disabled using the yadm.gpg-perms configuration.
When cloning a repo which includes data in a .ssh or .gnupg directory, if those directories do not exist at the time of cloning, yadm will create the directories with mask 0700 prior to merging the fetched data into the work-tree.
When running a Git command and .ssh or .gnupg directories do not exist, yadm will create those directories with mask 0700 prior to running the Git command. This can be disabled using the yadm.auto-private-dirs configuration.

For every command yadm supports, a program can be provided to run before or after that command. These are referred to as "hooks". yadm looks for hooks in the directory $HOME/.yadm/hooks. Each hook is named using a prefix of pre_ or post_, followed by the command which should trigger the hook. For example, to create a hook which is run after every yadm pull command, create a hook named post_pull. Hooks must have the executable file permission set.
If a pre_ hook is defined, and the hook terminates with a non-zero exit status, yadm will refuse to run the yadm command. For example, if a pre_commit hook is defined, but that command ends with a non-zero exit status, the yadm commit will never be run. This allows one to "short-circuit" any operation using a pre_ hook.
Hooks have the following environment variables available to them at runtime:
YADM_HOOK_COMMAND
The command which triggered the hook
YADM_HOOK_EXIT
The exit status of the yadm command
YADM_HOOK_FULL_COMMAND
The yadm command with all command line arguments
YADM_HOOK_REPO
The path to the yadm repository
YADM_HOOK_WORK
The path to the work-tree

The following are the default paths yadm uses for its own data. These paths can be altered using universal options. See the OPTIONS section for details.
$HOME/.yadm
The yadm directory. By default, all data yadm stores is relative to this directory.
$YADM_DIR/config
Configuration file for yadm.
$YADM_DIR/repo.git
Git repository used by yadm.
$YADM_DIR/encrypt
List of globs used for encrypt/decrypt
$YADM_DIR/files.gpg
All files encrypted with yadm encrypt are stored in this file.

yadm init
Create an empty repo for managing files
yadm add .bash_profile ; yadm commit
Add .bash_profile to the Git index and create a new commit
yadm remote add origin <url>
Add a remote origin to an existing repository
yadm push -u origin master
Initial push of master to origin
echo .ssh/*.key >> $HOME/.yadm/encrypt
Add a new pattern to the list of encrypted files
yadm encrypt ; yadm add ~/.yadm/files.gpg ; yadm commit
Commit a new set of encrypted files

Report issues or create pull requests at GitHub:
https://github.com/TheLocehiliosan/yadm/issues

Tim Byrne <sultan@locehilios.com>

git(1), gpg(1)
https://thelocehiliosan.github.io/yadm/
25 October 2017 1.12.0

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