Tk::Entry - Create and manipulate Entry widgets
-background -highlightbackground -insertontime -selectforeground
-borderwidth -highlightcolor -insertwidth -takefocus
-cursor -highlightthickness -justify -textvariable
-exportselection -insertbackground -relief -xscrollcommand
-font -insertborderwidth -selectbackground
-foreground -insertofftime -selectborderwidth
- Command-Line Name: -disabledbackground
- Database Name: disabledBackground
- Database Class: DisabledBackground
- Specifies the background color to use when the entry is disabled. If this
option is the empty string, the normal background color is used.
- Command-Line Name: -disabledforeground
- Database Name: disabledForeground
- Database Class: DisabledForeground
- Specifies the foreground color to use when the entry is disabled. If this
option is the empty string, the normal foreground color is used.
- Name: invalidCommand
- Class: InvalidCommand
- Switch: -invalidcommand
- Alias: -invcmd
- Specifies a script to eval when validateCommand returns 0. Setting
it to <undef> disables this feature (the default). The best use of
this option is to set it to bell. See Validation below for
- Command-Line Name: -readonlybackground
- Database Name: readonlyBackground
- Database Class: ReadonlyBackground
- Specifies the background color to use when the entry is read-only. If this
option is the empty string, the normal background color is used.
- Name: show
- Class: Show
- Switch: -show
- If this option is specified, then the true contents of the entry are not
displayed in the window. Instead, each character in the entry's value will
be displayed as the first character in the value of this option, such as
``*''. This is useful, for example, if the entry is to be used to enter a
password. If characters in the entry are selected and copied elsewhere,
the information copied will be what is displayed, not the true contents of
- Name: state
- Class: State
- Switch: -state
- Specifies one of three states for the entry: normal,
disabled, or readonly. If the entry is readonly, then
the value may not be changed using widget commands and no insertion cursor
will be displayed, even if the input focus is in the widget; the contents
of the widget may still be selected. If the entry is disabled, the
value may not be changed, no insertion cursor will be displayed, the
contents will not be selectable, and the entry may be displayed in a
different color, depending on the values of the -disabledforeground
and -disabledbackground options.
- Name: validate
- Class: Validate
- Switch: -validate
- Specifies the mode in which validation should operate: none,
focus, focusin, focusout, key, or all.
It defaults to none. When you want validation, you must explicitly
state which mode you wish to use. See Validation below for
- Name: validateCommand
- Class: ValidateCommand
- Switch: -validatecommand
- Alias: -vcmd
- Specifies a script to eval when you want to validate the input into the
entry widget. Setting it to "undef" disables this feature (the
default). This command must return a valid boolean value. If it returns 0
(or the valid boolean equivalent) then it means you reject the new edition
and it will not occur and the invalidCommand will be evaluated if
it is set. If it returns 1, then the new edition occurs. See
Validation below for more information.
- Name: width
- Class: Width
- Switch: -width
- Specifies an integer value indicating the desired width of the entry
window, in average-size characters of the widget's font. If the value is
less than or equal to zero, the widget picks a size just large enough to
hold its current text.
method creates a new window (given by the $entry argument) and
makes it into an entry widget. Additional options, described above, may be
specified on the command line or in the option database to configure aspects
of the entry such as its colors, font, and relief. The entry
returns its $entry argument. At the time this command is invoked, there must
not exist a window named $entry, but $entry's parent must exist.
An entry is a widget that displays a one-line text string and allows that string
to be edited using methods described below, which are typically bound to
keystrokes and mouse actions. When first created, an entry's string is empty.
A portion of the entry may be selected as described below. If an entry is
exporting its selection (see the exportSelection
option), then it will
observe the standard X11 protocols for handling the selection; entry
selections are available as type STRING
. Entries also observe the
standard Tk rules for dealing with the input focus. When an entry has the
input focus it displays an insertion cursor
to indicate where new
characters will be inserted.
Entries are capable of displaying strings that are too long to fit entirely
within the widget's window. In this case, only a portion of the string will be
displayed; methods described below may be used to change the view in the
window. Entries use the standard xScrollCommand
interacting with scrollbars (see the description of the -xscrollcommand
option for details). They also support scanning, as described below.
Validation of entry widgets is derived from part of the patch written by
firstname.lastname@example.org. This works by setting the validateCommand
to a callback which will be evaluated according to the validate
- Default. This means no validation will occur.
- validateCommand will be called when the entry receives or loses
- validateCommand will be called when the entry receives focus.
- validateCommand will be called when the entry loses focus.
- validateCommand will be called when the entry is edited.
- validateCommand will be called for all above conditions.
are called with the
- The proposed value of the entry. If you are configuring the entry widget
to have a new textvariable, this will be the value of that
- The characters to be added (or deleted). This will be "undef" if
validation is due to focus, explcit call to validate or if change is due
to "-textvariable" changing.
- The current value of entry i.e. before the proposed change.
- index of char string to be added/deleted, if any. -1 otherwise
- type of action. 1 == INSERT, 0 == DELETE, -1 if it's a forced validation
or textvariable validation
In general, the textVariable
can be dangerous
to mix. If you try set the textVariable
to something that the
will not accept it will be set back to the value of the
entry widget. Using the textVariable
for read-only purposes will never
will turn itself off by setting validate
when an error occurs, for example when the validateCommand
encounters an error in its script while evaluating,
does not return a valid boolean value.
With the perl/Tk version validate
option is supposed to be
"suspended" while executing the validateCommand
. This is experimental but in theory either callback can
"correct" the value of the widget, and override the proposed change.
should still return false to inhibit the change from
happening when it returns.)
method creates a widget object. This object supports the
methods described in Tk::options which can be
used to enquire and modify the options described above. The widget also
inherits all the methods provided by the generic Tk::Widget class.
Many of the additional methods for entries take one or more indices as
arguments. An index specifies a particular character in the entry's string, in
any of the following ways:
- Specifies the character as a numerical index, where 0 corresponds to the
first character in the string.
- Indicates the anchor point for the selection, which is set with the
selectionFrom and selectionAdjust methods.
- Indicates the character just after the last one in the entry's string.
This is equivalent to specifying a numerical index equal to the length of
the entry's string.
- Indicates the character adjacent to and immediately following the
- Indicates the first character in the selection. It is an error to use this
form if the selection isn't in the entry window.
- Indicates the character just after the last one in the selection. It is an
error to use this form if the selection isn't in the entry window.
- In this form, number is treated as an x-coordinate in the entry's
window; the character spanning that x-coordinate is used. For example, ``
@0'' indicates the left-most character in the
Abbreviations may be used for any of the forms above, e.g. `` e
'' or ``
''. In general, out-of-range indices are automatically rounded to
the nearest legal value.
The following additional methods are available for entry widgets:
- Returns a list of four numbers describing the bounding box of the
character given by index. The first two elements of the list give
the x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner of the screen area
covered by the character (in pixels relative to the widget) and the last
two elements give the width and height of the character, in pixels. The
bounding box may refer to a region outside the visible area of the
- Returns the current value of the configuration option given by
option. Option may have any of the values accepted by the
?value, option, value, ...?)
- Query or modify the configuration options of the widget. If no
option is specified, returns a list describing all of the available
options for $entry (see Tk::configure for information on the format of
this list). If option is specified with no value, then the
command returns a list describing the one named option (this list will be
identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned if no
option is specified). If one or more option-value pairs are
specified, then the command modifies the given widget option(s) to have
the given value(s); in this case the command returns an empty string.
Option may have any of the values accepted by the entry
- Delete one or more elements of the entry. First is the index of the
first character to delete, and last is the index of the character
just after the last one to delete. If last isn't specified it
defaults to first+1, i.e. a single character is deleted. This
method returns an empty string.
- Returns the entry's string.
- Arrange for the insertion cursor to be displayed just before the character
given by index. Returns an empty string.
- Returns the numerical index corresponding to index.
- $entry->insert(index, string)
- Insert the characters of string just before the character indicated
by index. Returns an empty string.
- $entry->scan(option, args)
- This method is used to implement scanning on entries. It has two forms,
depending on Option:
- Records x and the current view in the entry widget; used in
conjunction with later scanDragto methods. Typically this method is
associated with a mouse button press in the widget. It returns an empty
- This method computes the difference between its x argument and the
x argument to the last scanMark method for the widget. It
then adjusts the view left or right by 10 times the difference in
x-coordinates. This method is typically associated with mouse motion
events in the widget, to produce the effect of dragging the entry at high
speed through the widget. The return value is an empty string.
- $entry->selection(option, arg)
- This method is used to adjust the selection within an entry. It has
several forms, depending on Option:
- Locate the end of the selection nearest to the character given by
index, and adjust that end of the selection to be at index
(i.e including but not going beyond index). The other end of the
selection is made the anchor point for future selectionTo methods.
If the selection isn't currently in the entry, then a new selection is
created to include the characters between index and the most recent
selection anchor point, inclusive. Returns an empty string.
- Clear the selection if it is currently in this widget. If the selection
isn't in this widget then the method has no effect. Returns an empty
- Set the selection anchor point to just before the character given by
index. Doesn't change the selection. Returns an empty string.
- Returns 1 if there is are characters selected in the entry, 0 if nothing
- Sets the selection to include the characters starting with the one indexed
by start and ending with the one just before end. If
end refers to the same character as start or an earlier one,
then the entry's selection is cleared.
- If index is before the anchor point, set the selection to the
characters from index up to but not including the anchor point. If
index is the same as the anchor point, do nothing. If index
is after the anchor point, set the selection to the characters from the
anchor point up to but not including index. The anchor point is
determined by the most recent selectionFrom or
selectionAdjust method in this widget. If the selection isn't in
this widget then a new selection is created using the most recent anchor
point specified for the widget. Returns an empty string.
- This command is used to force an evaluation of the validateCommand
independent of the conditions specified by the validate option. It
returns 0 or 1.
- This command is used to query and change the horizontal position of the
text in the widget's window. It can take any of the following forms:
- Returns a list containing two elements. Each element is a real fraction
between 0 and 1; together they describe the horizontal span that is
visible in the window. For example, if the first element is .2 and the
second element is .7, 20% of the entry's text is off-screen to the left,
the middle 50% is visible in the window, and 30% of the text is off-screen
to the right. These are the same values passed to scrollbars via the
- Adjusts the view in the window so that the character given by index
is displayed at the left edge of the window.
- Adjusts the view in the window so that the character fraction of
the way through the text appears at the left edge of the window.
Fraction must be a fraction between 0 and 1.
- This method shifts the view in the window left or right according to
number and what. Number must be an integer.
What must be either units or pages or an abbreviation
of one of these. If what is units, the view adjusts left or
right by number average-width characters on the display; if it is
pages then the view adjusts by number screenfuls. If
number is negative then characters farther to the left become
visible; if it is positive then characters farther to the right become
Tk automatically creates class bindings for entries that give them the following
default behavior. In the descriptions below, ``word'' refers to a contiguous
group of letters, digits, or ``_'' characters, or any single character other
- Clicking mouse button 1 positions the insertion cursor just before the
character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input focus to this
widget, and clears any selection in the widget. Dragging with mouse button
1 strokes out a selection between the insertion cursor and the character
under the mouse.
- Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word under the mouse and
positions the insertion cursor at the beginning of the word. Dragging
after a double click will stroke out a selection consisting of whole
- Triple-clicking with mouse button 1 selects all of the text in the entry
and positions the insertion cursor before the first character.
- The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 1
while the Shift key is down; this will adjust the end of the selection
that was nearest to the mouse cursor when button 1 was pressed. If the
button is double-clicked before dragging then the selection will be
adjusted in units of whole words.
- Clicking mouse button 1 with the Control key down will position the
insertion cursor in the entry without affecting the selection.
- If any normal printing characters are typed in an entry, they are inserted
at the point of the insertion cursor.
- The view in the entry can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 2. If
mouse button 2 is clicked without moving the mouse, the selection is
copied into the entry at the position of the mouse cursor.
- If the mouse is dragged out of the entry on the left or right sides while
button 1 is pressed, the entry will automatically scroll to make more text
visible (if there is more text off-screen on the side where the mouse left
- The Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one character to the
left or right; they also clear any selection in the entry and set the
selection anchor. If Left or Right is typed with the Shift key down, then
the insertion cursor moves and the selection is extended to include the
new character. Control-Left and Control-Right move the insertion cursor by
words, and Control-Shift-Left and Control-Shift-Right move the insertion
cursor by words and also extend the selection. Control-b and Control-f
behave the same as Left and Right, respectively. Meta-b and Meta-f behave
the same as Control-Left and Control-Right, respectively.
- The Home key, or Control-a, will move the insertion cursor to the
beginning of the entry and clear any selection in the entry. Shift-Home
moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the entry and also extends
the selection to that point.
- The End key, or Control-e, will move the insertion cursor to the end of
the entry and clear any selection in the entry. Shift-End moves the cursor
to the end and extends the selection to that point.
- The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the position
of the insertion cursor. They don't affect the current selection.
Shift-Select and Control-Shift-Space adjust the selection to the current
position of the insertion cursor, selecting from the anchor to the
insertion cursor if there was not any selection previously.
- Control-/ selects all the text in the entry.
- Control-\ clears any selection in the entry.
- The F16 key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w copies the
selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is a selection.
- The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w copies
the selection in the widget to the clipboard and deletes the selection. If
there is no selection in the widget then these keys have no effect.
- The F18 key (labelled Paste on many Sun workstations) or Control-y inserts
the contents of the clipboard at the position of the insertion
- The Delete key deletes the selection, if there is one in the entry. If
there is no selection, it deletes the character to the right of the
- The BackSpace key and Control-h delete the selection, if there is one in
the entry. If there is no selection, it deletes the character to the left
of the insertion cursor.
- Control-d deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
- Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.
- Control-k deletes all the characters to the right of the insertion
- Control-t reverses the order of the two characters to the right of the
If the entry is disabled using the -state option, then the entry's
view can still be adjusted and text in the entry can still be selected,
but no insertion cursor will be displayed and no text modifications will
The behavior of entries can be changed by defining new bindings for
individual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.