Utility - Helper functions for Excel::Writer::XLSX.
Functions to help with some common tasks when using Excel::Writer::XLSX.
These functions mainly relate to dealing with rows and columns in A1 notation
and to handling dates and times.
use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility; # Import everything
($row, $col) = xl_cell_to_rowcol( 'C2' ); # (1, 2)
$str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 1, 2 ); # C2
$str = xl_col_to_name( 702 ); # AAA
$str = xl_inc_col( 'Z1' ); # AA1
$str = xl_dec_col( 'AA1' ); # Z1
$date = xl_date_list(2002, 1, 1); # 37257
$date = xl_parse_date( '11 July 1997' ); # 35622
$time = xl_parse_time( '3:21:36 PM' ); # 0.64
$date = xl_decode_date_EU( '13 May 2002' ); # 37389
This module provides a set of functions to help with some common tasks
encountered when using the Excel::Writer::XLSX module. The two main categories
of function are:
Row and column functions: these are used to deal with Excel's A1 representation
of cells. The functions in this category are:
xl_rowcol_to_cell
xl_cell_to_rowcol
xl_col_to_name
xl_range
xl_range_formula
xl_inc_row
xl_dec_row
xl_inc_col
xl_dec_col
Date and Time functions: these are used to convert dates and times to the
numeric format used by Excel. The functions in this category are:
xl_date_list
xl_date_1904
xl_parse_time
xl_parse_date
xl_parse_date_init
xl_decode_date_EU
xl_decode_date_US
All of these functions are exported by default. However, you can use import
lists if you wish to limit the functions that are imported:
use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility; # Import everything
use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility qw(xl_date_list); # xl_date_list only
use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility qw(:rowcol); # Row/col functions
use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility qw(:dates); # Date functions
Excel::Writer::XLSX supports two forms of notation to designate the position of
cells: Row-column notation and A1 notation.
Row-column notation uses a zero based index for both row and column while A1
notation uses the standard Excel alphanumeric sequence of column letter and
1-based row. Columns range from A to XFD, i.e. 0 to 16,383, rows range from 0
to 1,048,575 in Excel 2007+. For example:
(0, 0) # The top left cell in row-column notation.
('A1') # The top left cell in A1 notation.
(1999, 29) # Row-column notation.
('AD2000') # The same cell in A1 notation.
Row-column notation is useful if you are referring to cells programmatically:
for my $i ( 0 .. 9 ) {
$worksheet->write( $i, 0, 'Hello' ); # Cells A1 to A10
}
A1 notation is useful for setting up a worksheet manually and for working with
formulas:
$worksheet->write( 'H1', 200 );
$worksheet->write( 'H2', '=H7+1' );
The functions in the following sections can be used for dealing with A1
notation, for example:
( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('C2'); # (1, 2)
$str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 1, 2 ); # C2
Cell references in Excel can be either relative or absolute. Absolute references
are prefixed by the dollar symbol as shown below:
A1 # Column and row are relative
$A1 # Column is absolute and row is relative
A$1 # Column is relative and row is absolute
$A$1 # Column and row are absolute
An absolute reference only makes a difference if the cell is copied. Refer to
the Excel documentation for further details. All of the following functions
support absolute references.
Parameters: $row: Integer
$col: Integer
$row_absolute: Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]
$col_absolute: Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]
Returns: A string in A1 cell notation
This function converts a zero based row and column cell reference to a A1 style
string:
$str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 0, 0 ); # A1
$str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 0, 1 ); # B1
$str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 1, 0 ); # A2
The optional parameters $row_absolute and $col_absolute can be used to indicate
if the row or column is absolute:
$str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 0, 0, 0, 1 ); # $A1
$str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 0, 0, 1, 0 ); # A$1
$str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 0, 0, 1, 1 ); # $A$1
See above for an explanation of absolute cell references.
Parameters: $string String in A1 format
Returns: List ($row, $col)
This function converts an Excel cell reference in A1 notation to a zero based
row and column. The function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$",
cell notation.
my ( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('A1'); # (0, 0)
my ( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('B1'); # (0, 1)
my ( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('C2'); # (1, 2)
my ( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('$C2'); # (1, 2)
my ( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('C$2'); # (1, 2)
my ( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('$C$2'); # (1, 2)
Parameters: $col: Integer
$col_absolute: Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]
Returns: A column string name.
This function converts a zero based column reference to a string:
$str = xl_col_to_name(0); # A
$str = xl_col_to_name(1); # B
$str = xl_col_to_name(702); # AAA
The optional parameter $col_absolute can be used to indicate if the column is
absolute:
$str = xl_col_to_name( 0, 0 ); # A
$str = xl_col_to_name( 0, 1 ); # $A
$str = xl_col_to_name( 1, 1 ); # $B
Parameters: $sheetname String
$row_1: Integer
$row_2: Integer
$col_1: Integer
$col_2: Integer
$row_abs_1: Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]
$row_abs_2: Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]
$col_abs_1: Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]
$col_abs_2: Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]
Returns: A worksheet range formula as a string.
This function converts zero based row and column cell references to an A1 style
range string:
my $str = xl_range( 0, 9, 0, 0 ); # A1:A10
my $str = xl_range( 1, 8, 2, 2 ); # C2:C9
my $str = xl_range( 0, 3, 0, 4 ); # A1:E4
my $str = xl_range( 0, 3, 0, 4, 1 ); # A$1:E4
my $str = xl_range( 0, 3, 0, 4, 1, 1 ); # A$1:E$4
Parameters: $sheetname String
$row_1: Integer
$row_2: Integer
$col_1: Integer
$col_2: Integer
Returns: A worksheet range formula as a string.
This function converts zero based row and column cell references to an A1 style
formula string:
my $str = xl_range_formula( 'Sheet1', 0, 9, 0, 0 ); # =Sheet1!$A$1:$A$10
my $str = xl_range_formula( 'Sheet2', 6, 65, 1, 1 ); # =Sheet2!$B$7:$B$66
my $str = xl_range_formula( 'New data', 1, 8, 2, 2 );# ='New data'!$C$2:$C$9
This is useful for setting ranges in Chart objects:
$chart->add_series(
categories => xl_range_formula( 'Sheet1', 1, 9, 0, 0 ),
values => xl_range_formula( 'Sheet1', 1, 9, 1, 1 ),
);
# Which is the same as:
$chart->add_series(
categories => '=Sheet1!$A$2:$A$10',
values => '=Sheet1!$B$2:$B$10',
);
Parameters: $string, a string in A1 format
Returns: Incremented string in A1 format
This functions takes a cell reference string in A1 notation and increments the
row. The function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell
notation:
my $str = xl_inc_row( 'A1' ); # A2
my $str = xl_inc_row( 'B$2' ); # B$3
my $str = xl_inc_row( '$C3' ); # $C4
my $str = xl_inc_row( '$D$4' ); # $D$5
Parameters: $string, a string in A1 format
Returns: Decremented string in A1 format
This functions takes a cell reference string in A1 notation and decrements the
row. The function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell
notation:
my $str = xl_dec_row( 'A2' ); # A1
my $str = xl_dec_row( 'B$3' ); # B$2
my $str = xl_dec_row( '$C4' ); # $C3
my $str = xl_dec_row( '$D$5' ); # $D$4
Parameters: $string, a string in A1 format
Returns: Incremented string in A1 format
This functions takes a cell reference string in A1 notation and increments the
column. The function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell
notation:
my $str = xl_inc_col( 'A1' ); # B1
my $str = xl_inc_col( 'Z1' ); # AA1
my $str = xl_inc_col( '$B1' ); # $C1
my $str = xl_inc_col( '$D$5' ); # $E$5
Parameters: $string, a string in A1 format
Returns: Decremented string in A1 format
This functions takes a cell reference string in A1 notation and decrements the
column. The function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell
notation:
my $str = xl_dec_col( 'B1' ); # A1
my $str = xl_dec_col( 'AA1' ); # Z1
my $str = xl_dec_col( '$C1' ); # $B1
my $str = xl_dec_col( '$E$5' ); # $D$5
Dates and times in Excel are represented by real numbers, for example "Jan
1 2001 12:30 AM" is represented by the number 36892.521.
The integer part of the number stores the number of days since the epoch and the
fractional part stores the percentage of the day in seconds.
A date or time in Excel is like any other number. To display the number as a
date you must apply a number format to it: Refer to the
"set_num_format()" method in the Excel::Writer::XLSX documentation:
$date = xl_date_list( 2001, 1, 1, 12, 30 );
$format->set_num_format( 'mmm d yyyy hh:mm AM/PM' );
$worksheet->write( 'A1', $date, $format ); # Jan 1 2001 12:30 AM
The date handling functions below are supplied for historical reasons. In the
current version of the module it is easier to just use the
"write_date_time()" function to write dates or times. See the DATES
AND TIME IN EXCEL section of the main Excel::Writer::XLSX documentation for
details.
In addition to using the functions below you must install the Date::Manip and
Date::Calc modules. See REQUIREMENTS and the individual requirements of each
functions.
For a "DateTime.pm" solution see the DateTime::Format::Excel module.
Parameters: $years: Integer
$months: Integer [optional, default is 1]
$days: Integer [optional, default is 1]
$hours: Integer [optional, default is 0]
$minutes: Integer [optional, default is 0]
$seconds: Float [optional, default is 0]
Returns: A number that represents an Excel date
or undef for an invalid date.
Requires: Date::Calc
This function converts an array of data into a number that represents an Excel
date. All of the parameters are optional except for $years.
$date1 = xl_date_list( 2002, 1, 2 ); # 2 Jan 2002
$date2 = xl_date_list( 2002, 1, 2, 12 ); # 2 Jan 2002 12:00 pm
$date3 = xl_date_list( 2002, 1, 2, 12, 30 ); # 2 Jan 2002 12:30 pm
$date4 = xl_date_list( 2002, 1, 2, 12, 30, 45 ); # 2 Jan 2002 12:30:45 pm
This function can be used in conjunction with functions that parse date and time
strings. In fact it is used in most of the following functions.
Parameters: $string, a textual representation of a time
Returns: A number that represents an Excel time
or undef for an invalid time.
This function converts a time string into a number that represents an Excel
time. The following time formats are valid:
hh:mm [AM|PM]
hh:mm [AM|PM]
hh:mm:ss [AM|PM]
hh:mm:ss.ss [AM|PM]
The meridian, AM or PM, is optional and case insensitive. A 24 hour time is
assumed if the meridian is omitted.
$time1 = xl_parse_time( '12:18' );
$time2 = xl_parse_time( '12:18:14' );
$time3 = xl_parse_time( '12:18:14 AM' );
$time4 = xl_parse_time( '1:18:14 AM' );
Time in Excel is expressed as a fraction of the day in seconds. Therefore you
can calculate an Excel time as follows:
$time = ( $hours * 3600 + $minutes * 60 + $seconds ) / ( 24 * 60 * 60 );
Parameters: $string, a textual representation of a date and time
Returns: A number that represents an Excel date
or undef for an invalid date.
Requires: Date::Manip and Date::Calc
This function converts a date and time string into a number that represents an
Excel date.
The parsing is performed using the "ParseDate()" function of the
Date::Manip module. Refer to the "Date::Manip" documentation for
further information about the date and time formats that can be parsed. In
order to use this function you will probably have to initialise some
"Date::Manip" variables via the "xl_parse_date_init()"
function, see below.
xl_parse_date_init( "TZ=GMT", "DateFormat=non-US" );
$date1 = xl_parse_date( "11/7/97" );
$date2 = xl_parse_date( "Friday 11 July 1997" );
$date3 = xl_parse_date( "10:30 AM Friday 11 July 1997" );
$date4 = xl_parse_date( "Today" );
$date5 = xl_parse_date( "Yesterday" );
Note, if you parse a string that represents a time but not a date this function
will add the current date. If you want the time without the date you can do
something like the following:
$time = xl_parse_date( "10:30 AM" );
$time -= int( $time );
Parameters: A list of Date::Manip variable strings
Returns: A list of all the Date::Manip strings
Requires: Date::Manip
This function is used to initialise variables required by the Date::Manip
module. You should call this function before calling
"xl_parse_date()". It need only be called once.
This function is a thin wrapper for the "Date::Manip::Date_Init()"
function. You can use "Date_Init()" directly if you wish. Refer to
the "Date::Manip" documentation for further information.
xl_parse_date_init( "TZ=MST", "DateFormat=US" );
$date1 = xl_parse_date( "11/7/97" ); # November 7th 1997
xl_parse_date_init( "TZ=GMT", "DateFormat=non-US" );
$date1 = xl_parse_date( "11/7/97" ); # July 11th 1997
Parameters: $string, a textual representation of a date and time
Returns: A number that represents an Excel date
or undef for an invalid date.
Requires: Date::Calc
This function converts a date and time string into a number that represents an
Excel date.
The date parsing is performed using the "Decode_Date_EU()" function of
the Date::Calc module. Refer to the "Date::Calc" documentation for
further information about the date formats that can be parsed. Also note the
following from the "Date::Calc" documentation:
"If the year is given as one or two digits only (i.e., if the year is less
than 100), it is mapped to the window 1970 -2069 as follows:"
0 <= $year < 70 ==> $year += 2000;
70 <= $year < 100 ==> $year += 1900;
The time portion of the string is parsed using the "xl_parse_time()"
function described above.
Note: the EU in the function name means that a European date format is assumed
if it is not clear from the string. See the first example below.
$date1 = xl_decode_date_EU( "11/7/97" ); #11 July 1997
$date2 = xl_decode_date_EU( "Sat 12 Sept 1998" );
$date3 = xl_decode_date_EU( "4:30 AM Sat 12 Sept 1998" );
Parameters: $string, a textual representation of a date and time
Returns: A number that represents an Excel date
or undef for an invalid date.
Requires: Date::Calc
This function converts a date and time string into a number that represents an
Excel date.
The date parsing is performed using the "Decode_Date_US()" function of
the Date::Calc module. Refer to the "Date::Calc" documentation for
further information about the date formats that can be parsed. Also note the
following from the "Date::Calc" documentation:
"If the year is given as one or two digits only (i.e., if the year is less
than 100), it is mapped to the window 1970 -2069 as follows:"
0 <= $year < 70 ==> $year += 2000;
70 <= $year < 100 ==> $year += 1900;
The time portion of the string is parsed using the "xl_parse_time()"
function described above.
Note: the US in the function name means that an American date format is assumed
if it is not clear from the string. See the first example below.
$date1 = xl_decode_date_US( "11/7/97" ); # 7 November 1997
$date2 = xl_decode_date_US( "Sept 12 Saturday 1998" );
$date3 = xl_decode_date_US( "4:30 AM Sept 12 Sat 1998" );
Parameters: $date, an Excel date with a 1900 epoch
Returns: an Excel date with a 1904 epoch or zero if
the $date is before 1904
This function converts an Excel date based on the 1900 epoch into a date based
on the 1904 epoch.
$date1 = xl_date_list( 2002, 1, 13 ); # 13 Jan 2002, 1900 epoch
$date2 = xl_date_1904( $date1 ); # 13 Jan 2002, 1904 epoch
See also the "set_1904()" workbook method in the Excel::Writer::XLSX
documentation.
The date and time functions require functions from the Date::Manip and
Date::Calc modules. The required functions are "autoused" from these
modules so that you do not have to install them unless you wish to use the
date and time routines. Therefore it is possible to use the row and column
functions without having "Date::Manip" and "Date::Calc"
installed.
For more information about "autousing" refer to the documentation on
the "autouse" pragma.
When using the autoused functions from "Date::Manip" and
"Date::Calc" on Perl 5.6.0 with "-w" you will get a
warning like this:
"Subroutine xxx redefined ..."
The current workaround for this is to put "use warnings;" near the
beginning of your program.
John McNamara jmcnamara@cpan.org
Copyright MM-MMXVIII, John McNamara.
All Rights Reserved. This module is free software. It may be used, redistributed
and/or modified under the same terms as Perl itself.