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Sah::Type(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Sah::Type(3)
 

Sah::Type - Standard types

This document describes version 0.9.45 of Sah::Type (from Perl distribution Sah), released on 2017-03-09.

This document specifies Sah standard types.

This type does not have any clauses. The only value it knows is the undefined value (like "undef" in Perl, or "null" in PHP).

This is the base type role, all Sah types (except "undef") must implement this role.

The list below is ordered by priority, from highest to lowest.
defhash_v : FLOAT
Priority: 0 (checked first before everything else).
Category: metadata.
From DefHash. Normally there is no need to set this.
v : FLOAT (default: 1)
Priority: 0 (checked first before everything else).
Category: metadata.
From DefHash. Specify Sah version. Should be 1 at the moment.
schema_v : FLOAT (default: 1)
Priority: 0 (checked first before everything else).
Category: metadata.
Specify schema version. By default assumed to be 1 if not set.
base_v : FLOAT (default: 1)
Priority: 0 (checked first before everything else).
Category: metadata.
Specify base schema version. By default assumed to be 1 if not set. Using a base schema with a different value will fail. Can be used to force child schemas to update whenever we change our schema. For example:
 // schema: vocal
 ["str", {"in": ["a", "e", "i", "o", "u"]}]
 // schema: consonant, defined in terms of "vocal", by
 ["vocal", {"match": "\\A[a-z]\\z", "in.op": "not"}]
However, if "vocal" changes its implementation or structure to:
 // the new vocal
 ["str", {"match": "\\A[aeiou]\\z"}]
then consonant will silently break because of clash (overriding) in the "match" clause. To force consonant to fail (so its author can update it, should the authors of "vocal" and "consonant" are two different persons):
 // the new vocal
 ["str", {"schema_v": 2, "match": "\\A[aeiou]\\z"}]
Since "vocal"'s "schema_v" is now 2, it is not the same as 1 (which is implied by "consonant", having the default value of "base_v"). "consonant"'s author might then update its own implementation to match "vocal":
 // the adjusted consonant
 ["vocal", {"base_v":2, "clset":{"match":"\\A[a-z]\\z"}, "match.op":"not"}]
Notice the matching of "consonant"'s "base_v" against "vocal"'s "schema_v". "consonant" might also add its own ""schema_v":2" so other schemas depending on it are forced to adjust, if needed.
c : ANY
Priority: 0 (checked first before anything else).
Category: metadata
Used to store compiler-specific options in its attributes. Example:
 "c.perl.use_defined_or": 0
ok : ANY -> true
Priority: 1 (very high). This is processed before all other clauses.
Return value: true (always succeeds).
Category: constraint.
Will do nothing. This clause is just a convenience if you want to do nothing (or perhaps just use the attributes of this clause to do things). It is the default in the "else" section of the "if_clause" clause.
To force failure, you can use ""!ok": true".
default : ANY
Attributes specific to this clause: "temp" (bool, default 0, if set to true then default value will only be used during validation and at the end data will not use this value).
Priority: 1 (very high). This is processed before all other clauses except "ok".
Category: default.
Supply a default value.
Example: Given schema "["int", {"req": 1}]" an undef data is invalid, but given schema "["int", {"req": 1, "default": 3}]" an undef data is valid because it will be given default value first.
default_lang : LOCALE_CODE (defaut: en_US)
Priority: 2 (very high), after "default".
Category: metadata.
From DefHash. Set default language for this schema. Language-dependant attribute values (e.g. "summary", "description") will be assumed to be in the default language.
name : STR or [STR, STR]
Priority: 2 (very high), after "default".
Category: metadata.
From DefHash. A short noun (usually one or two words, without any formatting) to name the schema, useful for compiler that transform the schema to human description text.
Aside from string, it can also be a two-element string to set the singular and plural form of the noun.
To store translations, you can use the "alt.lang.*" clause attributes (or its shortcut form using "(LANG)" suffix).
Example:
 ["int", {
     "min": 0,
     "name": ["positive integer", "positive integers"],
     "name(id_ID)": "bilangan positif"
 }]
See also: "summary", "description", "tags".
caption : STR
Priority: 2 (very high), after "default".
From DefHash.
summary : STR
Priority: 2 (very high), after "default".
Category: metadata.
From DefHash. A one-line text (about 72 characters maximum, without any formatting) to describe the schema. This is useful, e.g. for manually describing a schema instead of using the human compiler. It can also be used in form field labels.
To store translations, you can use the "alt.lang.*" clause attributes (or its shortcut form using "(LANG)" suffix).
Example:
 // definition for 'single_dice_throw' schema/type
 ["int", {
     "req": 1,
     "summary":
         "A number representing result of single dice throw (1-6)",
     "summary(id_ID)":
         "Bilangan yang menyatakan hasil lempar sebuah dadu (1-6)",
     "between": [1, 6]
 }]
Without the summary, using a compiler to human text the above schema might be output as the standard, more boring "Integer, value between 1 and 6".
See also: "name", "description", "tags".
description : STR
Priority: 2 (very high), after "default".
Category: metadata.
From DefHash. A longer text (a paragraph or more) to describe the schema, useful e.g. for help/usage text. Text should be in Markdown format.
To store translations, you can use the "alt.lang.*" clause attributes (or its shortcut form using "(LANG)" suffix).
Example (using Perl syntax because it supports heredoc):
 ["array", {
     name        => 'http_headers',
     description => <<EOT,
 HTTP headers should be specified as an array of 2-element arrays (pairs). Each
 pair should contain header name in the first element (all lowercase, *-*
 written as *_*) and header value in the second element.
 Example:
     [["content_type","text/html"], ["accept","text/html"], ["accept","*/*"]]
 EOT
     req         => 1,
     of          => 'http_header',
  },
  {
      def => {
          http_header => ['array*', len=>2],
      },
 }]
See also: "name", "summary", "tags".
tags : ARRAY OF STR
Priority: 2 (very high), after "default".
Category: metadata.
From DefHash. A list of tags, can be used to categorize schemas.
See also: "name", "summary", "description".
req : BOOL
Priority: 3 (very high), executed after "default".
Category: constraint.
If set to 1, require that data be defined. Otherwise, allow data to be undef (the default behaviour).
By default, undef will pass even elaborate schema, e.g. "["int", {"min": 0, "max": 10, "div_by": 3}]" will still pass an undef. However, undef will not pass "["int": {"req": 1}]".
This behaviour is much like NULLs in SQL: we *can't* (in)validate something that is unknown/unset.
See also: "forbidden"
forbidden : BOOL
Priority: 3 (very high), executed after "default".
Category: constraint.
This is the opposite of "req", requiring that data be not defined (i.e. undef).
Given schema "["int", {"forbidden": 1}]", a non-undef value will fail. Another example: the schema "["int", {"req": 1, "forbidden": 1}]" will always fail due to conflicting clauses.
See also: "req"
prefilters : [EXPR, ...]
Priority: 10 (high). Run after "default" and "req"/"forbidden".
Category: filter.
Attributes specific to this clause: "temp" (bool, default 0, if set to true then prefiltered value will only be used during validation and at the end of the clause set data will not use this value).
Run expression(s), usually to preprocess data before further checking. Data is referred to in expression by variable $_. Prefiltered value should persist until the end of all other clauses (until the end of clause set), after which the old value can be restored.
clause : [CLNAME, CLVAL] -> ANY
Priority: 50 (normal)
Return value: clause return value.
Category: constraint.
Evaluate a clause. Example:
 ["int", "clause", ["div_by", 2]] // equivalent to ["int", "div_by", 2]
This clause is useful when combined with the ".op" attribute. Example:
 ["int", "clause|", [["div_by", 2], ["xmin", 10]]]
 // equivalent to:
 // ["int", "clause", [["div_by", 2], ["xmin", 10]], "clause.op", "or"]
The above schema says that the integer needs to be divisible by 2 or larger than 10.
clset : HASH -> INT
Priority: 50 (normal)
Return value: (number of successful clauses + 1) on success, false on failure.
Category: constraint.
Evaluate a clause set. Note that return value adds 1 to the number of successful clauses to avoid returning 0 (evaluates to false). And it will only be returned if clause is successful. Otherwise false (0) will be returned. Example:
 // require that data is between 1 and 10.
 // equivalent to ["int", "min", 1, "max", 10]
 ["int", "clset", {"min": 1, "max": 10}]
 // require that either data is between 1 and 10, or 90 and 100
 ["int", "clset|", [{"min": 1, "max": 10}, {"min": 90, "max": 100}]]
See also: "clause".
check : EXPR -> ANY
Priority: 50 (normal)
Return value: result of evaluated expression
Category: constraint.
Evaluate expression, which must evaluate to a true value for this clause to succeed. Examples:
 // require that string is a palindrome, using a Sah function
 ["str", "check", "is_palindrome($_)"]
 // require that the *length of* string is a prime number
 ["str", "check", "is_prime(len($_))"]
prop : [PROP, SCHEMA] -> bool
Priority: 50 (normal)
Return value: bool
Category: constraint
Validate property against a schema. Example:
 // require that the *length of* string is divisible by 2
 ["str", "prop", ["len", ["int", "div_by", 2]]]
See also: "check_prop"
check_prop : [PROP, EXPR] -> ANY
Priority: 50 (normal)
Return value: result of evaluated expression
Category: constraint
Just like "check", but instead of checking data itself, check property "PROP". Example:
 // require that the *length of* string is a prime number
 ["str", "check_prop", ["len", "is_prime($_)"]]
 // check that the email's Subject header is a palindrome
 ["email", "check_prop", [["headers", "subject"], "is_palindrome($_)"]]
See also: "prop"
if : ([COND, THEN] -> ANY) or ([COND, THEN, ELSE] -> ANY)
Priority: 50 (normal)
Return value: if condition is true, then the "THEN" result, otherwise the "ELSE" result.
Category: constraint.
A generic condition clause. "COND", "THEN", and "ELSE" are either boolean values, expressions (if they are string) or a clause set (if they are hash) or a schema (if they are array). "COND" is evaluated, if the result is true then "THEN" is evaluated, otherwise "ELSE" is evaluated. "ELSE" is optional.
Examples:
 // forbid the string to be lowercase
 "if": [{"match": "^[a-z]$"}, false]
 // if string is lowercase, it must be a palindrome
 "if": [{"match": "^[a-z]$"}, "is_palindrome($_)"]
 // if string is lowercase, it must be a palindrome, otherwise it must be longer
 // than 3 characters.
 "if": [{"match": "^[a-z]$"}, "is_palindrome($_)", "len($_) > 3"]
 // require the length of the string to be an even number
 "if": [{"prop": ["len", ["int", "div_by", 2]]}, true}
 // if string is a palindrome, then require it to have length > 5
 "if": [{"check": "is_palindrome($_)"}, ["len", ["int", "xmin": 5]]]
Note that you have to write schema in array form instead of string form, to avoid ambiguity with expression:
 // parsed as expression, wrong!
 "if": ["int", true]
 // correct
 "if": [["int"], true]
postfilters : [EXPR, ...]
Priority: 90 (very low). Run after all other clauses.
Category: filter.
Run expression(s), usually to postprocess data. Data is referred to in expression by variable $_. From here on, the data will be permanently set to the postfiltered value.

This is the comparable type role. All types which have comparable values must implement this role. Most types implement this role, including "str", all number types, etc.

in : [ANY, ...]
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint
Require that the data be one of the specified choices.
See also: "match" (for type 'str'), "has" (for 'HasElems' types)
Examples:
 ["int", {"in": [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]}] // single dice throw value
 ["str", {"!in": ["root", "admin", "administrator"]}] // forbidden usernames
is : ANY
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint
Require that the data is the same as VALUE. Will perform a numeric comparison for numeric types, or stringwise for string types, or deep comparison for deep structures.
Examples:
 ["int", {"is": 3}]
 ["int", {"is&": [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]}] // effectively the same as 'in'

This is the role for types that have the notion of elements/length. It provides clauses like "max_len", "len", "len_between", "each_elem", etc. It is used by "array", "hash", and also "str".

len : NUM
elems : ARRAY
indices : ARRAY

max_len : NUM
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint
Requires that the data have at most NUM elements.
Example:
 ["str", {"req": 1, "max_len": 10}] // string with at most 10 characters
min_len : NUM
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint
Requires that the data have at least NUM elements.
Example:
 ["array", {"min_len": 1}] // define an array with at least one element
len_between : [NUM_MIN, NUM_MAX]
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint
A convenience clause that combines "min_len" and "max_len".
Example, the two schemas below are equivalent:
 ["str", {"len_between": [1, 10]}]
 ["str", {"min_len": 1, "max_len": 10}]
len : NUM
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint
Requires that the data have exactly NUM elements.
has : ANY
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint
Requires that the data contains the element. This is the counterpart of the "in" clause.
Examples:
 // requires that array has element x
 ["array", {"has": "x"}]
 // requires that array has elements 'x', 'y', and 'z'
 ["array", {"has&": ["x", "y", "z"]}]
 // requires that string does not have character 'x'
 ["str", {"!has": "x"}]
uniq : BOOL
If set to 1, require that the element values be unique (like in a set). If set to 0, require that there are duplicates in the elements. For example, given this schema:
 ["array", "uniq", true]
this data passes: "[1, 2, 3]" but this one does not: "[1, 2, 1]".
each_elem : SCHEMA
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint, looping
Requires that every element of data validate to the specified schema. The first element that fails the schema will terminate the loop.
Examples:
 ["array", {"each_elem": "int"}]
 ["array", {"of": "int"}] // same thing, "of" is the same as "each_elem"
The above specifies an array of integers.
 ["hash", {"each_elem": ["str", {"match": "^[A-Za-z0-9]+$" }]}]
The above specifies hash with alphanumeric-only values.
check_each_elem : EXPR
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint, looping
Just like "each_elem" but instead of using schema, each element is tested using expression.
each_index : SCHEMA
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint, looping
Like "each_elem" but iterate over the indices. For type like "array", this is 0, 1, ... N. For "hash", this is the keys of hash.
check_each_index : EXPR
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint, looping
Like "each_index" but instead of using schema, each index is tested using expression.
exists : SCHEMA
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint, looping
Test that there is at least one element of data that validates to the schema. That element is returned. Be careful to not return element which has the value which evaluates to false.
check_exists : EXPR
Priority: 50 (normal)
Category: constraint, looping
Just like "exists" but instead of using schema, each element is tested using expression.

This is the type role for sortable types. It provides clauses like "min", "max", and "between". It is used by many types, for example "str", all numeric types, etc.

min : ANY
Require that the value is not less than some specified minimum (equivalent in intention to the Perl string "ge" operator, or the numeric ">=" operator).
Example:
 ["int", "min", 0] // specify positive numbers
xmin : ANY
Require that the value is not less nor equal than some specified minimum (equivalent in intention to the Perl string "gt" operator, or the numeric ">" operator). The "x" prefix is for "exclusive".
max : ANY
Require that the value is less or equal than some specified maximum (equivalent in intention to the Perl string "le" operator, or the numeric "<=" operator).
xmax : ANY
Require that the value is less than some specified maximum (equivalent in intention to the Perl string "lt" operator, or the numeric "<" operator). The "x" prefix is for "exclusive".
between : [ANY_MIN, ANY_MAX]
A convenient clause to combine "min" and "max".
Example, the following schemas are equivalent:
 ["float", {"between": [0.0, 1.5]}]
 ["float", {"min": 0.0, "max": 1.5}]
xbetween => [ANY_MIN, ANY_MAX]
A convenient clause to combine "xmin" and "xmax".

"buf" stores binary data. Elements of buf data are bytes. It is derived from "str".

"num" stores numbers. This type assumes the Comparable and Sortable roles.

"int" stores real (floating-point) numbers. This type is derived from "num".

is_nan : BOOL
Require that number is a NaN (e.g. "NaN" or "-NaN" in Perl).
is_inf : BOOL
Require that number is a positive or negative infinity (e.g. "Inf" or "-Infinity" in Perl).
is_pos_inf : BOOL
Require that number is a positive infinity (e.g. "Inf" or "+Infinity" in Perl).
is_neg_inf : BOOL
Require that number is a negative infinity (e.g. "-Inf" or "-Infinity" in Perl).

"int" stores integers. This type is derived from "num".

mod : [INT1, INT2]
Require that (data mod INT1) equals INT2. For example, "mod => [2, 1]" effectively specifies odd numbers.
div_by : INT
Require that data is divisible by a number. This is effectively just a shortcut for ""mod": [INT, 0]".
Example: Given schema "["int", {"div_by": 2}]", null, 0, 2, 4, and 6 are valid but 1, 3, 5 are not.

"str" stores strings (text). This type assumes the Comparable, Sortable, and HasElems roles (the elements are individual characters, the indices are integers from 0 to (length of string)-1). Default encoding is utf8.

encoding : str
Specify encoding. Currently the only supported value is "utf8".
match : REGEX|{COMPILER=>REGEX, ...}
Require that string match the specified regular expression.
Since regular expressions might not be 100% compatible from language to language, instead of avoiding the use of regex entirely, you can specify different regex for each target language, e.g.:
 ["str", {"match": {
   "js":     "...",
   "perl":   "...",
   "python": "..."
 }}]
To match against multiple regexes:
 // string must match a, b, and c
 ["str", {"match&": ["a", "b", "c"]}]
 // string must match either a or b or c
 ["str", {"match|": ["a", "b", "c"]}
 // string must NOT match a
 ["str", {"!match": "a"}]
 // string must NOT match a nor b nor c (i.e. must match none of those)
 ["str", {"match": [a, b, c], "match.op": "none"}]
is_re : BOOL
If value is true, require that the string be a valid regular expression string. If value is false, require that the string not be a valid regular expression string.

Boolean type. This type assumes the Comparable and Sortable roles.

is_true => BOOL
Check that value is true. This is a more portable way than comparing to a value using "is". To check that value is false, set this clause to a false value. Alternatively you can also use ""!is_true": 1".

Array type. This type assumes the Comparable and HasElems roles (the elements are indexed by integers starting from 0).

elems => ARRAY_OF_SCHEMA
Attributes: "create_default" (bool, default: 1).
Specify schemas for each element of the array. Example:
 ["array", "elems", ["int*", "float"]]
Valid values include "[1]", "[1, undef]", "[1, 1.1]", "[1, 1.1, "foo"]". Invalid values include "[]" (first element is a required int), "[1, "foo"]" (second element does not validate).
If there are not enough elements in the data, they will be assumed to be "null" (undefined value). Extra elements in the data are ignored.
The ".create_default" attribute regulates whether missing elements should be set with default values if they do not exist in the data. Example:
 ["array", "elems", ["int*", ["float", "default", 2]]]
In the last example, "[1]" will become "[1, 2]" after validation. However with:
 ["array",
     "elems", ["int*", ["float", "default", 2]],
     "elems.create_default", 0]
"[1]" will still become "[1]" after validation. In both cases, "[1, undef]" will become "[1, 2]".
of : SCHEMA
This is just an alias to "each_elem".

Hash (a.k.a. dictionary) type. This type assumes the Comparable and HasElems roles (the elements are hash values, the indices are hash keys).

keys : ARRAY
Alias for "HasElems"' "indices".
values : ARRAY
Alias for "HasElems"' "elems".

keys : HASH
Attributes: "restrict" (bool, default: 1), "create_default" (bool, default: 1).
Specify schema for specific pair value. Also, by default, restrict keys of hash to the list specified in this clause, except if the ".restrict" attribute is set to false. Example:
 ["hash*",
     "keys", {
         "name": "str",
         "address": ["any", "of", ["str", ["array", "of", "str"]]],
         "email": "email_address"
     },
 ]
The above schema requires data to be a hash with keys "name", "address", "email". None of the keys are required to be present (use "req_keys" for that), but other keys are not allowed.
Another example:
 ["hash",
     "keys", {"a": "int", "b": "str", "c": "float"},
     "keys.restrict", 0
 ]
The above schema specifies a hash with definition for the value of its "a", "b", and "c" keys. But other keys like "d" are allowed since the "keys" clause is set to not restrict keys.
The ".create_default" attribute regulates whether keys should be created with default values if they do not exist in the data. For example:
 ["hash", "keys": {"a": "int", "b": ["int", "default": 2]}]
Given data "{}", by default it will be given defaults so it becomes "{"b": 2}". "a" is not created because it does not have a default value. However, if ".create_default" is set to false:
 ["hash",
     "keys", {"a": "int", "b": ["int", "default": 2]},
     "keys.create_default", 0
 ]
then "{}" will still become "{}" after validation. In both cases, "{"b": null}" will still become "{"b": 2}".
re_keys : HASH
Attributes: "restrict" (bool, default: 1)
Just like "keys", but specifies schemas for keys which match regexes. Example:
 ["hash", "re_keys", {"^[A-Za-z]": "str", "^[0-9]": "int"}]
The above schema specifies that for keys which begin with a letter the values must be strings, and for keys which begin with a digit the values must be integers. These hashes validate: "{}", "{"a": "x", "b": 1, "1": 1}". These hashes do not validate: "{"1": "x"}", "{"#": "x"}" (key does not match any keys in "re_keys").
req_keys : ARRAY
Specify which keys are required to be exist. Note that the values for those keys are not required to be defined (use "keys" for that). Example:
 ["hash", "req_keys", ["a", "b"]]
The above schema specifies that hash needs to have some keys, but the value can be null. This hash will validate: "{"a": 1, "b": null}". However, given this schema:
 ["hash", "req_keys", ["a", "b"], "keys", {"a": "int", "b": "int*"}]
the previous hash will not validate since the value for "b" is required.
Note: you can also use the "keys" property to express the same thing, but "req_keys" is more convenient:
 ["hash", "prop", ["keys", ["array", "has&", ["a", "b"]]]]
See also: "allowed_keys", "forbidden_keys".
allowed_keys : ARRAY
Specify which keys are allowed (can exist). Unlike "req_keys", keys specified in the value need not exist. Example:
 ["hash", "allowed_keys", ["a", "b"]]
Then hashes "{}", "{"a":1}", "{"a":1,"b":2}" all pass, but "{"a":1,"c":3}" fails because it contains keys outside the allowed list.
Note: you can also use the "keys" property to express the same thing, but "allowed_keys" is more convenient:
 ["hash", "prop", ["keys", ["array", "each_elem", ["str", "in", ["a", "b"]]]]]
See also: "req_keys", "forbidden_keys".
allowed_keys_re : RE
Like "allowed_keys" but using regular expression.
forbidden_keys : ARRAY
Specify which keys are forbidden (must not exist). Example:
 ["hash", "forbidden_keys", ["a", "b"]]
Then hashes "{}", "{"c":1}" all pass, but "{"a":1,"c":3}" fails because it contains keys in the forbidden list.
Note: you can also use the "keys" property to express the same thing, but "forbidden_keys" is more convenient:
 ["hash", "prop", ["keys", ["array", "each_elem", ["str", "!in", ["a", "b"]]]]]
See also: "req_keys", "allowed_keys".
forbidden_keys_re : RE
Like "forbidden_keys" but using regular expression.
each_key
Alias to "each_index".
each_value
Alias to "each_elem".
check_each_key
Alias to "check_each_index".
check_each_value
Alias to "check_each_elem".
choose_one_key : ARRAY[STR]
Specify that hash contains at most one out of a list of key names. Example:
 ["hash", "choose_one_key", ["exclude", "exclude_from"]]
Hash can contain either "exclude" or "exclude_from" but not both.
choose_one
Alias to "choose_one_key".
choose_all_keys : ARRAY[STR]
Specify that if hash contains any one of keys in a given list of key names, then hash must contain all of those keys. Example:
 ["hash", "choose_all_keys", ["password", "confirmation"]]
When hash contains "password", it must also contain "confirmation". And vice versa.
choose_all
Alias to "choose_all_keys".
(TODO: choose_some_keys : [ min, max, ARRAY[STR] ])
req_one_key : ARRAY[STR]
Specify that only exactly one key is required to exist. Example:
 ["hash", "req_one_key", ["input_value", "input_file"]] // either specify input value directly, or specify path to file that contains the value
When the two keys both exist, the clause fails.
req_one
Alias to "req_one_key".
req_all_keys
Alias to "req_keys".
req_all
Alias to "req_keys".
req_some_keys : [ min, max, ARRAY[STR] ]
req_some
Alias to "req_some_keys".
dep_any : [ STR|ARRAY[STR], ARRAY[STR] ]
Specify that the first argument (either a string containing a key name, or a list of key names) can only exist when one of the keys given in the second argument exists. Example:
 ["hash", "dep_any", ["postcode", ["address"]]]
The "postcode" key can only be specified if "address" key exists.
Another example:
 ["hash", "dep_any", ["input_format", ["input_value", "input_file"]]
If "input_value" or "input_file" exists, then "input_format" is allowed to be specified.
Yet another example:
 ["hash", "dep_any", [["input_format", "input_is_yaml", "input_is_json"], ["input_value", "input_file"]]
If either "input_value" or "input_file" exists, then one of "input_format", "input_is_yaml", "input_is_json" is allowed to be specified.
dep_all : [ STR|ARRAY[STR], ARRAY[STR] ]
Specify that the first argument (either a string containing a key name, or a list of key names) can only exist when all of the keys given in the second argument exist. Example:
 ["hash", "dep_all", ["postcode", ["address"]]]
In the above example, you can also use "dep_any" clause for the same effect since there is only one key to depend on. Another example:
 ["hash", "dep_all", ["postcode", ["address", "city"]]
In the above example, "postcode" can only be specified when both "address" and "city" exist. Yet another example:
req_dep_any : [ STR|ARRAY[STR], ARRAY[STR] ]
Specify that the first argument (either a string containing a key name, or a list of key names) is required when one of the keys given in the second argument exist.
req_dep_all : [ STR|ARRAY[STR], ARRAY[STR] ]
Specify that the first argument (either a string containing a key name, or a list of key names) is required when all of the keys given in the second argument exist.

A type to specify alternate schemas.

of : [SCHEMA, ...]
Specify the schema(s) where the value will need to be valid to at least one of them.

A type to specify co-schemas (all schemas that must be validated to value).

of : [SCHEMA, ...]
Specify the schema(s) where the value will need to be valid to all of them.

Object.

meths : ARRAY
attrs : ARRAY

can : STR
isa : STR

Please visit the project's homepage at <https://metacpan.org/release/Sah>.

Source repository is at <https://github.com/perlancar/perl-Sah>.

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website <https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Sah>
When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.

Sah

perlancar <perlancar@cpan.org>

This software is copyright (c) 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 by perlancar@cpan.org.
This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
2017-03-09 perl v5.28.1

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