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Yahoo::Search(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Yahoo::Search(3)
 

Yahoo::Search - Perl interface to the Yahoo! Search public API.

version 1.11.3
The following search spaces are supported:
Doc
Common web search for documents (html, pdf, doc, ...), including Y!Q contextual search.
Image
Image search (jpeg, png, gif, ...)
Video
Video file search (avi, mpeg, realmedia, ...)
News
News article search
Local
Yahoo! Local area (ZIP-code-based Yellow-Page like search)
Terms
A pseudo-search to report the important search terms from the provided content or content+query.
Spell
A pseudo-search to fetch a "did you mean?" spelling suggestion for a search term.
Related
A pseudo-search to fetch "also try" related-searches for a search term.
(Note: what this Perl API calls "Doc" Search is what Yahoo! calls "Web" Search. But gee, aren't all web searches "Web" search, including Image/News/Video/etc?)
Yahoo!'s raw API, which this package uses, is described at:
  http://developer.yahoo.net/

The full documentation for this suite of classes is spread among these packages:
   Yahoo::Search
   Yahoo::Search::Request
   Yahoo::Search::Response
   Yahoo::Search::Result
However, you need "use" only Yahoo::Search, which brings in the others as needed.
In the common case, you need read only the first and the last (Yahoo::Search to create a query, and Yahoo::Search::Result to interpret the results).

Yahoo::Search provides a rich and full-featured set of classes for accessing the various features of Yahoo! Search, and also offers a variety of shortcuts to allow simple access, such as the following Doc search:
 use Yahoo::Search;
 my @Results = Yahoo::Search->Results(Doc => "Britney latest marriage",
                                      AppId => "YahooDemo",
                                      # The following args are optional.
                                      # (Values shown are package defaults).
                                      Mode         => 'all', # all words
                                      Start        => 0,
                                      Count        => 10,
                                      Type         => 'any', # all types
                                      AllowAdult   => 0, # no porn, please
                                      AllowSimilar => 0, # no dups, please
                                      Language     => undef,
                                     );
 warn $@ if $@; # report any errors
 for my $Result (@Results)
 {
     printf "Result: #%d\n",  $Result->I + 1,
     printf "Url:%s\n",       $Result->Url;
     printf "%s\n",           $Result->ClickUrl;
     printf "Summary: %s\n",  $Result->Summary;
     printf "Title: %s\n",    $Result->Title;
     printf "In Cache: %s\n", $Result->CacheUrl;
     print "\n";
 }
The first argument to "Results" indicates which search space is to be queried (in this case, Doc). The second argument is the search term or phrase (described in detail in the next section). Subsequent arguments are optional key/value pairs (described in detail in the section after that) -- the ones shown in the example are those allowed for a Doc query, with the values shown being the defaults.
"Results" returns a list of Yahoo::Search::Result objects, one per item (in the case of a Doc search, an item is a web page, pdf document, doc document, etc.). The methods available to a "Result" object are dependent upon the search space of the original query -- see Yahoo::Search::Result documentation for the complete list.

Within a search phrase (""Britney latest marriage"" in the example above), words that you wish to be included even if they would otherwise be eliminated as "too common" should be proceeded with a ""+"". Words that you wish to exclude should be proceeded with a ""-"". Words can be separated with ""OR"" (the default for the "any" Mode, described below), and can be wrapped in double quotes to identify an exact phrase (the default with the "phrase" Mode, also described below).
There are also a number of "Search Meta Words", as described at http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/ysearch/basics/basics-04.html and http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/ysearch/tips/tips-03.html , which can stand along or be combined with Doc searches (and, to some extent, some of the others -- YMMV):
site:
allows one to find all documents within a particular domain and all its subdomains. Example: site:yahoo.com
hostname:
allows one to find all documents from a particular host only. Example: hostname:autos.yahoo.comm
link:
allows one to find documents that link to a particular url. Example: link:http://autos.yahoo.com/
url:
allows one to find a specific document in Yahoo!'s index. Example: url:http://edit.autos.yahoo.com/repair/tree/0.html
inurl:
allows one to find a specific keyword as part of indexed urls. Example: inurl:bulgarian
intitle:
allows one to find a specific keyword as part of the indexed titles. Example: intitle:Bulgarian
As an example combining a number of different search styles, consider
    my @Results = Yahoo::Search->Results(Doc => 'site:TheSmokingGun.com "Michael Jackson" -arrest',
                                         AppId => "YahooDemo");
This returns data about pages at TheSmokingGun.com about Michael Jackson that don't contain the word "arrest" (yes, there are actually a few such pages).

As mentioned above, the arguments allowed in a "Query" call depend upon the search space of the query. Here is a table of the possible arguments, showing which apply to queries of which search space:
                  Doc   Image  Video  News   Local  Spell Related Terms
                 -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  ----- ------- -----
  AppId           [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]
  Mode            [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]     .      .      .
  Start           [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]     .      .      .
  Count           [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]     .     [X]     .
  Context         [X]     .      .      .      .      .      .     [X]
  Country         [X]     .      .      .      .      .      .      .
  License         [X]     .      .      .      .      .      .      .
  AllowSimilar    [X]     .      .      .      .      .      .      .
  AllowAdult      [X]    [X]    [X]     .      .      .      .      .
  Type            [X]    [X]    [X]     .      .      .      .      .
  Language        [X]     .      .     [X]     .      .      .      .
  Region          [X]     .      .      .      .      .      .      .
  Sort             .      .      .     [X]    [X]     .      .      .
  Color            .     [X]     .      .      .      .      .      .
      .
  Lat              .      .      .      .     [X]     .      .      .
  Long             .      .      .      .     [X]     .      .      .
  Street           .      .      .      .     [X]     .      .      .
  City             .      .      .      .     [X]     .      .      .
  State            .      .      .      .     [X]     .      .      .
  PostalCode       .      .      .      .     [X]     .      .      .
  Location         .      .      .      .     [X]     .      .      .
  Radius           .      .      .      .     [X]     .      .      .
  AutoContinue    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]     .      .      .
  Debug           [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]
  PreRequestCallback [X] [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]    [X]
Here are details of each:
AppId
A character string which identifies the application making use of the Yahoo! Search API. (Think of it along the lines of an HTTP User-Agent string.)
The characters allowed are space, plus "A-Za-z0-9_()[]*+-=,.:@\"
This argument is required of all searches (sorry). You can make up whatever AppId you'd like, but you are encouraged to register it via the link on
  http://developer.yahoo.net/
    
especially if you are creating something that will be widely distributed.
As mentioned below in Defaults and Default Overrides, it's particularly convenient to get the "AppId" out of the way by putting it on the "use" line, e.g.
   use Yahoo::Search AppId => 'just testing';
    
It then applies to all queries unless explicitly overridden.
Mode
Must be one of: "all" (the default), "any", or "phrase". Indicates how multiple words in the search term are used: search for documents with all words, documents with any words, or documents that contain the search term as an exact phrase.
Start
Indicates the ordinal of the first result to be returned, e.g. the "30" of "showing results 30-40" (except that "Start" is zero-based, not one-based). The default is zero, meaning that the primary results will be returned.
Count
Indicates how many items should be returned. The default is 10. The maximum allowed depends on the search space being queried. The maximum isn't enforced by this module.
Note that
  Yahoo::Search::MaxCount($SearchSpace)
    
and
  $SearchEngine->MaxCount($SearchSpace)
    
return the assumed maximum count allowed for the given $SearchSpace. These counts may be out of date.
Context
By providing a context string to a Doc query, you change the request from a normal document query to a Y!Q contextual query. Y!Q is described at
   http://yq.search.yahoo.com/
    
The "Content" string can be raw text, html, etc., and is to provide the document search more information about what kind of results are wanted.
For example, without a "Context", a document search for "Madonna" returns the most popular documents (which are invariably about the famous pop singer). However, if you provide a context string even as simple as "Virgin Mary", the results skew away from the pop singer toward the Mother of God. Since it's likely that a confusion between the two would be less than optimal in pretty much every conceivable case, this is a Good Thing.
When a "Context" is given, the query string itself may be empty. For example, if you have the text of a blog entry in $BlogText, you can fetch "related links" via:
   use Yahoo::Search AppId => 'my blog stuff';
   my @Results = Yahoo::Search->Results(Doc => undef, Context => $BlogText);
    
In a Terms search, "Context" is required.
Country
Attempts to restrict the Doc search to web servers residing in the named country. As of this writing, the Yahoo! web services support the following codes for "Country":
 code   country
 ----   ---------------
  ar    Argentina
  au    Australia
  at    Austria
  be    Belgium
  br    Brazil
  ca    Canada
  cn    China
  cz    Czech Republic
  dk    Denmark
  fi    Finland
  fr    France
  de    Germany
  it    Italy
  jp    Japan
  kr    Korea
  nl    Netherlands
  no    Norway
  pl    Poland
  rf    Russian Federation
  es    Spain
  se    Sweden
  ch    Switzerland
  tw    Taiwan
  uk    United Kingdom
  us    United States
    
In addition, the code "default" is the same as the lack of a country specifier: no country-related restrictions.
The above list can be found in %Yahoo::Search::KnownCountry.
Because the list of countries may be updated more often than this Perl API, this Perl API does not attempt to restrict the "Country" value to members of this specific list. If you provide a "Country" value which is not supported by Yahoo!'s web services, a "400 Bad Request" error is returned in "@$".
Region
Uses a different regional version of the Yahoo! web service. For example, setting "Region" to "de" will show the results as returned from de.search.yahoo.com. Note that this does not restrict the results in the way "Country" and "Language" do, but will merely lead to a different weighting of the results. As of this writing, the Yahoo! web services support the following codes for "Region":
 code   country
 ----   ---------------
  ar    Argentina
  au    Australia
  at    Austria
  br    Brazil
  ca    Canada
  ct    Catalan
  dk    Denmark
  fi    Finland
  fr    France
  de    Germany
  in    India
  id    Indonesia
  it    Italy
  my    Malaysia
  mx    Mexico
  nl    Netherlands
  no    Norway
  ph    Phillipines
  ru    Russian Federation
  sg    Singapore
  es    Spain
  se    Sweden
  ch    Switzerland
  th    Thailand
  uk    United Kingdom
  us    United States (yahoo.com)
    
License
For "Doc" searches, can be:
"any"
(the default) -- results are not filtered with respect to licenses
"cc_any"
Only items with a Creative Commons license (of any type) are returned. See their (horribly designed hard to find anything substantial) site at:
  http://creativecommons.org/
    
"cc_commercial"
Only items with a Creative Commons license which allows some kind of commercial use are returned.
"cc_modifiable"
Only items with a Creative Commons license which allows modification (e.g. derived works) of some kind are returned.
You may combine the above to create an intersection, e.g.
   License => "cc_commercial+cc_modifiable"
(space, comma, or plus-separated) returns items which allow both some kind of commercial use, and their use in some kinds of derivative works.
AllowSimilar
If this boolean is true (the default is false), similar results which would otherwise not be returned are included in the result set.
AllowAdult
If this boolean is false (the default), results considered to be "adult" (i.e. porn) are not included in the result set. Set to true to allow unfiltered results.
Standard precautions apply about how the "is adult?" determination is not perfect.
Type
This argument can be used to restrict the results to only a specific file type. The default value, "any", allows any type associated with the search space to be returned (that is, provides no restriction). Otherwise, the values allowed for "Type" depend on the search space:
 Search space    Allowed Type values
 ============    ========================================================
 Doc             any  html msword pdf ppt rss txt xls
 Image           any  bmp gif jpeg png
 Video           any  avi flash mpeg msmedia quicktime realmedia
 News            N/A
 Local           N/A
 Spell           N/A
 Related         N/A
 Term            N/A
    
(Deprecated: you may use "all" in place of "any")
Language
If provided, attempts to restrict the results to documents in the given language. The value is an language code such as "en" (English), "ja" (Japanese), etc (mostly ISO 639-1 codes). As of this writing, the following codes are supported:
 code  language
 ----  ---------
  sq   Albanian
  ar   Arabic
  bg   Bulgarian
  ca   Catalan
  szh  Chinese (simplified)
  tzh  Chinese (traditional)
  hr   Croatian
  cs   Czech
  da   Danish
  nl   Dutch
  en   English
  et   Estonian
  fi   Finnish
  fr   French
  de   German
  el   Greek
  he   Hebrew
  hu   Hungarian
  is   Icelandic
  it   Italian
  ja   Japanese
  ko   Korean
  lv   Latvian
  lt   Lithuanian
  no   Norwegian
  fa   Persian
  pl   Polish
  pt   Portuguese
  ro   Romanian
  ru   Russian
  sk   Slovak
  sl   Slovenian
  es   Spanish
  sv   Swedish
  th   Thai
  tr   Turkish
    
In addition, the code "default" is the same as the lack of a language specifier, and seems to mean a mix of major world languages, skewed toward English.
The above list can be found in %Yahoo::Search::KnownLanguage.
Because the list of languages may be updated more often than this Perl API, this Perl API does not attempt to restrict the "Language" value to members of this specific list. If you provide a "Language" value which is not supported by Yahoo!'s web services, a "400 Bad Request" error is returned in "@$".
Sort
For News searches, "sort" may be "rank" (the default) or "date".
For Local searches, "sort" may be "relevance" (the default; most relevant first), "distance" (closest first), "rating" (highest rating first), or "title" (alphabetic sort).
Color
For Image searches, may be "any" (the default), "color", or "bw":
"any"
No filtering based on colorization or lack thereof
"color"
Only images with color are returned
"bw"
Only black & white / grayscale images are returned
Lat
Long
Street
City
State
PostalCode
Location
These items are for a Local query, and specify the epicenter of the search. The epicenter must be provided in one of a variety of ways:
via "Lat" and "Long"
via the free-text "Location"
via "Street" and "PostalCode"
via "Street" and "City" and "State"
via "PostalCode" alone
via "City" and "State" alone.
The list above is the order of precedence for when multiple fields are sent (e.g. if a "Lat" and "Long" are sent, they are used regardless of whether, say, a "PostalCode" is used), but it's probably best to send exactly only the fields you wish to be used.
"Lat" and "Long" are floating point numbers, such as this example:
   Lat  =>  39.224079  # 39 deg 13 min 26.686 sec North
   Long => -98.541807, # 98 deg 32 min 30.506 sec West
(which happens to be the location of the "Medes Ranch" triangulation station, upon which all country, state, etc., boundaries in North America were originally based)
"Street" is the street address, e.e. "701 First Ave". "PostalCode" is a US 5-digit or 9-digit ZIP code (e.g. "94089" or "94089-1234").
If "Location" is provided, it supersedes the others. It should be a string along the lines of "701 First Ave, Sunnyvale CA, 94089". The following forms are recognized:
  city state
  city state zip
  zip
  street, city state
  street, city state zip
  street, zip
Searches that include a street address (either in the "Location", or if "Location" is empty, in "Street") provide for a more detailed epicenter specification.
Radius
For Local searches, indicates how wide an area around the epicenter to search. The value is the radius of the search area, in miles. The default radius depends on the search location (urban areas tend to have a smaller default radius).
AutoContinue
A boolean (default off). If true, turns on the potentially dangerous auto-continuation, as described in the docs for "NextResult" in Yahoo::Search::Response.
Debug
"Debug" is a string (defaults to an empty string). If the substring ""url"" is found anywhere in the string, the url of the Yahoo! request is printed on stderr. If ""xml"", the raw xml received is printed to stderr. If ""hash"", the raw Perl hash, as converted from the XML, is Data::Dump'd to stderr.
Thus, to print all debugging, you'd set "Debug" to a value such as ""url xml hash"".
PreRequestCallback
This is for debugging (I needed it for my own regression-test script). If defined, it should be a code ref which accepts a single Yahoo::Search::Request object argument. It is called just before Yahoo!'s servers are contacted, and if it returns false, the call to Yahoo! is aborted (be sure to set $@).

The Y! Search API class system supports the following objects (all loaded as needed via Yahoo::Search):
  Yahoo::Search
  Yahoo::Search::Request
  Yahoo::Search::Response
  Yahoo::Search::Result
Here is a summary of them:
Yahoo::Search
A "search engine" object which can hold user-specified default values for search-query arguments. Often not used explicitly.
Yahoo::Search::Request
An object which holds the information needed to make one search-query request. Often not used explicitly.
Yahoo::Search::Response
An object which holds the results of a query (including a bunch of "Result" objects).
Yahoo::Search::Result
An object representing one query result (one image, web page, etc., as appropriate to the original search space).

The explicit way to perform a query and access the results is to first create a "Search Engine" object:
  my $SearchEngine = Yahoo::Search->new();
Optionally, you can provide "new" with key/value pairs as described in the Query arguments section above. Those values will then be available as default values during subsequent request creation. (More on this later.)
You then use the search-engine object to create a request:
  my $Request = $SearchEngine->Request(Doc => Britney);
You then actually make the request, getting a response:
  my $Response = $Request->Fetch();
You can then access the set of "Result" objects in a number of ways, either all at once
  my @Results = $Response->Results();
or iteratively:
  while (my $Result = $Response->NextResult) {
               :
               :
  }
In Practice....
In practice, one often does not need to go through all these steps explicitly. The only reason to create a search-engine object, for example, is to hold default overrides (to be made available to subsequent requests made via the search-engine object). For example:
   use Yahoo::Search;
   my $SearchEngine = Yahoo::Search->new(AppId      => "Bobs Fish Mart",
                                         Count      => 25,
                                         AllowAdult => 1,
                                         PostalCode => 95014);
Now, calls to the various query functions ("Query", "Results") via this $SearchEngine will use these defaults ( Image searches, for example, will be with "AllowAdult" set to true, and Local searches will be centered at ZIP code 95014.) All will return up to 25 results.
In this example:
   my @Results = $SearchEngine->Results(Image => "Britney",
                                        Count => 20);
The query is made with "AppId" as '"Bobs_Fish_Mart"' and "AllowAdult" true (both via $SearchEngine), but "Count" is 20 because explicit args override the default in $SearchEngine. The "PostalCode" arg does not apply too an Image search, so the default provided from "SearchEngine" is not needed with this particular query.
Defaults on the 'use' line
You can also provide the same defaults on the "use" line. The following example has the same result as the previous one:
   use Yahoo::Search AppId      => 'Bobs Fish Mart',
                     Count      => 25,
                     AllowAdult => 1,
                     PostalCode => 95014;
   my @Results = Yahoo::Search->Results(Image => "Britney",
                                        Count => 20);

Here, finally, are the functions and methods provided by Yahoo::Search. In all cases, "...args..." are any of the key/value pairs listed in the Query arguments section of this document (e.g. "Count => 20")
$SearchEngine = Yahoo::Search->new(...args...)
Creates a search-engine object (a container for defaults). On error, sets $@ and returns nothing.
$Request = $SearchEngine->Request($space => $query, ...args...)
$Request = Yahoo::Search->Request($space => $query, ...args...)
Creates a "Request" object representing a search of the named search space ( Doc, Image, etc.) of the given query string.
On error, sets $@ and returns nothing.
Note: all arguments are in key/value pairs, but the $space/$query pair (which is required) is required to appear first.
$Response = $SearchEngine->Query($space => $query, ...args...)
$Response = Yahoo::Search->Query($space => $query, ...args...)
Creates an implicit "Request" object, and fetches it, returning the resulting "Response".
On error, sets $@ and returns nothing.
Note: all arguments are in key/value pairs, but the $space/$query pair (which is required) is required to appear first.
@Results = $SearchEngine->Results($space => $query, ...args...)
@Results = Yahoo::Search->Results($space => $query, ...args...)
Creates an implicit "Request" object, then "Response" object, in the end returning a list of "Result" objects.
On error, sets $@ and returns nothing.
Note: all arguments are in key/value pairs, but the $space/$query pair (which is required) is required to appear first.
@links = $SearchEngine->Links($space => $query, ...args...)
@links = Yahoo::Search->Links($space => $query, ...args...)
A super shortcut which goes directly from the query args to a list of
  <a href=...>...</a>
    
links. Essentially,
    map { $_->Link } Yahoo::Search->Results($space => $query, ...args...);
    
or, more explicitly:
    map { $_->Link } Yahoo::Search->new()->Request($space => $query, ...args...)->Fetch->Results(@_);
    
See "Link" in the documentation for Yahoo::Search::Result.
Note: all arguments are in key/value pairs, but the $space/$query pair (which is required) is required to appear first.
@links = $SearchEngine->Terms($space => $query, ...args...)
@links = Yahoo::Search->Terms($space => $query, ...args...)
A super shortcut for Spell, Related, and Terms search spaces, returns the list of spelling suggestions, related-search suggestions, or important search terms, respectively.
Note: all arguments are in key/value pairs, but the $space/$query pair (which is required) is required to appear first. For a Terms search, the $query may be "undef" (and in in any case, a Terms search requires a "Context" argument).
For example,
   use Yahoo::Search AppId => "YahooDemo";
   for my $term (Yahoo::Search->Terms(Related => "Tivo")) {
       print $term , "\n";
   }
    
displays something along the lines of:
   directv tivo
   hd tivo
   tivo community
   tivo forum
   tivo upgrade
   tivo rebate
   dvd recorder tivo
   direct tv tivo
   tivo to go
   hdtv tivo
    
Here's an example with the Terms search space:
   use Yahoo::Search AppId => "YahooDemo";
   my $Context = << '*END*';
   We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect
   Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the
   common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of
   Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this
   Constitution for the United States of America.
   *END*
   for my $term (Yahoo::Search->Terms(Terms => undef, Context => $Context)) {
       print $term, "\n";
   }
    
displays something along the lines of:
  insure domestic tranquility
  promote the general welfare
  domestic tranquility
  united states
  states of america
  united states of america
  posterity
  blessings
  constitution
  perfect union
    
Note that a Spell search returns at most one term.
@html = $SearchEngine->HtmlResults($space => $query, ...args...)
@html = Yahoo::Search->HtmlResults($space => $query, ...args...)
Like "Links", but returns a list of html strings (one representing each result). See "as_html" in the documentation for Yahoo::Search::Result.
A simple result display might look like
   print join "<p>", Yahoo::Search->HtmlResults(....);
    
or, perhaps
   if (my @HTML = Yahoo::Search->HtmlResults(....))
   {
      print "<ul>";
      for my $html (@HTML) {
         print "<li>", $html;
      }
      print "</ul>";
   }
    
As an example, here's a complete CGI which shows results from an image-search, where the search term is in the '"s"' query string:
   #!/usr/local/bin/perl -w
   use CGI;
   my $cgi = new CGI;
   print $cgi->header();
   use Yahoo::Search AppId => 'my-search-app';
   if (my $term = $cgi->param('s')) {
       print join "<p>", Yahoo::Search->HtmlResults(Image => $term);
   }
    
The results, however, do look better with some style-sheet attention, such as:
  <style>
    .yResult { display: block; border: #CCF 3px solid ; padding:10px }
    .yLink   { }
    .yTitle  { display:none }
    .yImg    { border: solid 1px }
    .yUrl    { display:none }
    .yMeta   { font-size: 80% }
    .ySrcUrl { }
    .ySum    { font-family: arial; font-size: 90% }
  </style>
    
Note: all arguments are in key/value pairs, but the $space/$query pair (which is required) is required to appear first.
$num = $SearchEngine->MaxCount($space)
$num = Yahoo::Search->MaxCount($space)
Returns the assumed maximum allowed "Count" query-argument for the given search space. The amount may be out of date.
$SearchEngine->Default($key [ => $val ]);
If a new value is given, update the <$SearchEngine>'s value for the named $key.
In either case, the old value for $key in effect is returned. If the $SearchEngine had a previous value, it is returned. Otherwise, the global value in effect is returned.
As always, the key is from among those mentioned in the Query arguments section above.
The old value is returned.
Yahoo::Search->Default($key [ => $val ]);
Update or, if no new value is given, check the global default value for the named argument. The key is from among those mentioned in the Query examples section above, as well as "AutoCarp" (discussed below).

All key/value pairs mentioned in the Query arguments section may appear on the "use" line, in the call to the "new" constructor, or in requests that create a query explicitly or implicitly ("Request", "Query", "Results", "Links", or "HtmlResults").
Each argument's value takes the first of the following which applies (listed in order of precedence):
4)
The actual arguments to a function which creates (explicitly or implicitly) a request.
3)
Search-engine default overrides, set when the Yahoo::Search "new" constructor is used to create a search-engine object, or when that object's "Default" method is called.
2)
Global default overrides, set on the "use" line or via
 Yahoo::Search->Default()
    
1)
Defaults hard-coded into these packages (e.g. "Count" defaults to 10).
It's particularly convenient to put the "AppId" on the "use" line, e.g.
   use Yahoo::Search AppId => 'just testing';

By default, detected errors that would be classified as programming errors (e.g. use of incorrect args) are automatically spit out to stderr besides being returned via $@. This can be turned off via
  use Yahoo::Search AutoCarp => 0;
or
 Yahoo::Search->Default(AutoCarp => 0);
The default of true is somewhat obnoxious, but hopefully helps create better programs by forcing the programmer to actively think about error checking (if even long enough to turn off error reporting).

The following are globally available:
%Yahoo::Search::KnownCountry
A hash with the known (as of this writing) country codes supported by Yahoo! for the "Country" argument.
%Yahoo::Search::KnownLanguage
A hash with the known (as of this writing) language codes supported by Yahoo! for the "Language" argument.
$Yahoo::Search::RecentRequestUrl
The most recent REST url actually fetched from Yahoo! (perhaps useful for debugging). It does not reflect the fact that a request is changed to a POST when request is sufficiently large. Thus, there are times when the url on $Yahoo::Search::RecentRequestUrl is not actually fetchable from the Yahoo! servers.
$Yahoo::Search::UseXmlSimple
If you set this to a true value, the XML returned by Yahoo! will be parsed with XML::Simple (if installed on your system) rather than with Yahoo::Search::XML, a simple XML parser included as part of this package. XML::Simple uses XML::Parser under the hood, and at least on the systems I've tested it, XML::Parser suffers from a crippling memory leak that makes it very undesirable.
However, if Yahoo! changes the XML they return in a way that my simple parser can't handle, it tries parsing it with XML::Simple. If XML::Simple is installed and can parse the XML, $Yahoo::Search::UseXmlSimple is automatically set to true and a warning generated suggesting that a bug report be filed for Yahoo::Search::XML.
If you encounter a situation where Yahoo::Search::XML can't grok Yahoo!'s XML, please submit a bug report. In the mean time, you can ensure that XML::Simple is installed, set $Yahoo::Search::UseXmlSimple, and at least have things work until you run out of memory.
The default value of $Yahoo::Search::UseXmlSimple is taken from the environment variable "YAHOO_SEARCH_XMLSIMPLE" if present, and otherwise defaults to false.
$Yahoo::Search::Version
A string in "X.Y.Z" format. The first number, the major version, increments with large and/or backwards major incompatible changes. The second number (minor version) updates with notable feature additions/changes. The third number updates with every new release (and is the only one updated for small bug- and typo fix releases).

If "YAHOO_SEARCH_XMLSIMPLE" is set to a true (nonempty, non-"0") value, $Yahoo::Search::UseXmlSimple defaults to true. See above.
Yahoo::Search uses LWP to communicate with Yahoo!'s servers; LWP uses environment variables such as "http_proxy" and "no_proxy". See the perldoc for LWP for more.

Jeffrey Friedl (jfriedl@yahoo.com)
Jeffrey placed the 1.10.13 code in the public domain (or, technically, the http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ licence) on June 11th 2010. Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@pobox.com) currently maintains the code, though with very little spare much time. He's very happy for someone else to help out.
Please use https://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Yahoo-Search to submit bug reports.
2010-06-14 perl v5.28.1

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