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Man Pages
MBRTOWC(3) FreeBSD Library Functions Manual MBRTOWC(3)

mbrtowc, mbrtoc16, mbrtoc32
convert a character to a wide-character code (restartable)

Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

#include <wchar.h>
size_t
mbrtowc(wchar_t * restrict pc, const char * restrict s, size_t n, mbstate_t * restrict ps);
#include <uchar.h>
size_t
mbrtoc16(char16_t * restrict pc, const char * restrict s, size_t n, mbstate_t * restrict ps);
size_t
mbrtoc32(char32_t * restrict pc, const char * restrict s, size_t n, mbstate_t * restrict ps);

The mbrtowc(), mbrtoc16() and mbrtoc32() functions inspect at most n bytes pointed to by s to determine the number of bytes needed to complete the next multibyte character. If a character can be completed, and pc is not NULL, the wide character which is represented by s is stored in the wchar_t, char16_t or char32_t it points to.
If s is NULL, these functions behave as if pc was NULL, s was an empty string (“”) and n was 1.
The mbstate_t argument, ps, is used to keep track of the shift state. If it is NULL, these functions use an internal, static mbstate_t object, which is initialized to the initial conversion state at program startup.
As a single char16_t is not large enough to represent certain multibyte characters, the mbrtoc16() function may need to be invoked multiple times to convert a single multibyte character sequence.

The mbrtowc(), mbrtoc16() and mbrtoc32() functions return:
0
The next n or fewer bytes represent the null wide character (L'\0').
>0
The next n or fewer bytes represent a valid character, these functions return the number of bytes used to complete the multibyte character.
(size_t)-1
An encoding error has occurred. The next n or fewer bytes do not contribute to a valid multibyte character.
(size_t)-2
The next n contribute to, but do not complete, a valid multibyte character sequence, and all n bytes have been processed.
The mbrtoc16() function also returns:
(size_t)-3
The next character resulting from a previous call has been stored. No bytes from the input have been consumed.

The mbrtowc(), mbrtoc16() and mbrtoc32() functions will fail if:
[]
An invalid multibyte sequence was detected.
[]
The conversion state is invalid.

mbtowc(3), multibyte(3), setlocale(3), wcrtomb(3)

The mbrtowc(), mbrtoc16() and mbrtoc32() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:2011 (“ISO C11”).
May 21, 2013 FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE

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