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Man Pages


Manual Reference Pages  -  VIS (3)

NAME

vis, nvis, strvis, strnvis, strvisx, strnvisx, strenvisx, svis, snvis, strsvis, strsnvis, strsvisx, strsnvisx, strsenvisx - visually encode characters

CONTENTS

Library
Synopsis
Description
Multibyte Character Support
Environment
Errors
See Also
History

LIBRARY


.Lb libc

SYNOPSIS


.In vis.h char * vis char *dst int c int flag int nextc char * nvis char *dst size_t dlen int c int flag int nextc int strvis char *dst const char *src int flag int strnvis char *dst size_t dlen const char *src int flag int strvisx char *dst const char *src size_t len int flag int strnvisx char *dst size_t dlen const char *src size_t len int flag int strenvisx char *dst size_t dlen const char *src size_t len int flag int *cerr_ptr char * svis char *dst int c int flag int nextc const char *extra char * snvis char *dst size_t dlen int c int flag int nextc const char *extra int strsvis char *dst const char *src int flag const char *extra int strsnvis char *dst size_t dlen const char *src int flag const char *extra int strsvisx char *dst const char *src size_t len int flag const char *extra int strsnvisx char *dst size_t dlen const char *src size_t len int flag const char *extra int strsenvisx char *dst size_t dlen const char *src size_t len int flag const char *extra int *cerr_ptr

DESCRIPTION

The vis function copies into dst a string which represents the character c. If c needs no encoding, it is copied in unaltered. The string is null terminated, and a pointer to the end of the string is returned. The maximum length of any encoding is four bytes (not including the trailing NUL); thus, when encoding a set of characters into a buffer, the size of the buffer should be four times the number of bytes encoded, plus one for the trailing NUL. The flag parameter is used for altering the default range of characters considered for encoding and for altering the visual representation. The additional character, nextc, is only used when selecting the VIS_CSTYLE encoding format (explained below).

The strvis, strnvis, strvisx, and strnvisx functions copy into dst a visual representation of the string src. The strvis and strnvis functions encode characters from src up to the first NUL. The strvisx and strnvisx functions encode exactly len characters from src (this is useful for encoding a block of data that may contain NUL ’s). Both forms NUL terminate dst. The size of dst must be four times the number of bytes encoded from src (plus one for the NUL). Both forms return the number of characters in dst (not including the trailing NUL). The "n" versions of the functions also take an additional argument dlen that indicates the length of the dst buffer. If dlen is not large enough to fit the converted string then the strnvis and strnvisx functions return -1 and set errno to ENOSPC. The strenvisx function takes an additional argument, cerr_ptr, that is used to pass in and out a multibyte conversion error flag. This is useful when processing single characters at a time when it is possible that the locale may be set to something other than the locale of the characters in the input data.

The functions svis, snvis, strsvis, strsnvis, strsvisx, strsnvisx, and strsenvisx correspond to vis, nvis, strvis, strnvis, strvisx, strnvisx, and strenvisx but have an additional argument extra, pointing to a NUL terminated list of characters. These characters will be copied encoded or backslash-escaped into dst. These functions are useful e.g. to remove the special meaning of certain characters to shells.

The encoding is a unique, invertible representation composed entirely of graphic characters; it can be decoded back into the original form using the unvis(3), strunvis(3) or strnunvis(3) functions.

There are two parameters that can be controlled: the range of characters that are encoded (applies only to vis, nvis, strvis, strnvis, strvisx, and strnvisx), and the type of representation used. By default, all non-graphic characters, except space, tab, and newline are encoded (see isgraph(3)). The following flags alter this:
VIS_GLOB Also encode the magic characters (*’, ?’, [’ and #’) recognized by glob(3).
VIS_SP Also encode space.
VIS_TAB Also encode tab.
VIS_NL Also encode newline.
VIS_WHITE Synonym for VIS_SP | VIS_TAB | VIS_NL.
VIS_SAFE Only encode "unsafe" characters. Unsafe means control characters which may cause common terminals to perform unexpected functions. Currently this form allows space, tab, newline, backspace, bell, and return — in addition to all graphic characters — unencoded.

(The above flags have no effect for svis, snvis, strsvis, strsnvis, strsvisx, and strsnvisx. When using these functions, place all graphic characters to be encoded in an array pointed to by extra. In general, the backslash character should be included in this array, see the warning on the use of the VIS_NOSLASH flag below).

There are four forms of encoding. All forms use the backslash character \’ to introduce a special sequence; two backslashes are used to represent a real backslash, except VIS_HTTPSTYLE that uses %’, or VIS_MIMESTYLE that uses =’. These are the visual formats:
(default) Use an M’ to represent meta characters (characters with the 8th bit set), and use caret ^’ to represent control characters (see iscntrl(3)). The following formats are used:
\^C Represents the control character C’. Spans characters \000’ through \037’, and \177’ (as \^?’).
\M-C Represents character C’ with the 8th bit set. Spans characters \241’ through \376’.
\M^C Represents control character C’ with the 8th bit set. Spans characters \200’ through \237’, and \377’ (as \M^?’).
\040 Represents ASCII space.
\240 Represents Meta-space.

VIS_CSTYLE
  Use C-style backslash sequences to represent standard non-printable characters. The following sequences are used to represent the indicated characters:

\a — BEL (007)

\b — BS (010)

\f — NP (014)

\n — NL (012)

\r — CR (015)

\s — SP (040)

\t — HT (011)

\v — VT (013)

\0 — NUL (000)

When using this format, the nextc parameter is looked at to determine if a NUL character can be encoded as \0’ instead of \000’. If nextc is an octal digit, the latter representation is used to avoid ambiguity.

VIS_OCTAL
  Use a three digit octal sequence. The form is \ddd’ where d represents an octal digit.
VIS_HTTPSTYLE
  Use URI encoding as described in RFC 1738. The form is %xx’ where x represents a lower case hexadecimal digit.
VIS_MIMESTYLE
  Use MIME Quoted-Printable encoding as described in RFC 2045, only don’t break lines and don’t handle CRLF. The form is =XX’ where X represents an upper case hexadecimal digit.

There is one additional flag, VIS_NOSLASH, which inhibits the doubling of backslashes and the backslash before the default format (that is, control characters are represented by ^C’ and meta characters as M-C’). With this flag set, the encoding is ambiguous and non-invertible.

MULTIBYTE CHARACTER SUPPORT

These functions support multibyte character input. The encoding conversion is influenced by the setting of the LC_CTYPE environment variable which defines the set of characters that can be copied without encoding.

When 8-bit data is present in the input, LC_CTYPE must be set to the correct locale or to the C locale. If the locales of the data and the conversion are mismatched, multibyte character recognition may fail and encoding will be performed byte-by-byte instead.

As noted above, dst must be four times the number of bytes processed from src. But note that each multibyte character can be up to MB_LEN_MAX bytes so in terms of multibyte characters, dst must be four times MB_LEN_MAX times the number of characters processed from src.

ENVIRONMENT

LC_CTYPE
  Specify the locale of the input data. Set to C if the input data locale is unknown.

ERRORS

The functions nvis and snvis will return NULL and the functions strnvis, strnvisx, strsnvis, and strsnvisx, will return -1 when the dlen destination buffer size is not enough to perform the conversion while setting errno to:
[ENOSPC] The destination buffer size is not large enough to perform the conversion.

SEE ALSO

unvis(1), vis(1), glob(3), unvis(3)
.Rs Uniform Resource Locators (URL)
.Re
.Rs Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies
.Re

HISTORY

The vis, strvis, and strvisx functions first appeared in BSD 4.4 . The svis, strsvis, and strsvisx functions appeared in
.Nx 1.5 and
.Fx 9.2 . The buffer size limited versions of the functions (nvis, strnvis, strnvisx, snvis, strsnvis, and strsnvisx) appeared in
.Nx 6.0 and
.Fx 9.2 . Myltibyte character support was added in
.Nx 7.0 and
.Fx 9.2 .
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