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Man Pages
MAKEFS(8) FreeBSD System Manager's Manual MAKEFS(8)

makefs
create a file system image from a directory tree or a mtree manifest

makefs [
-DxZ
] [
-B endian
] [
-b free-blocks
] [
-d debug-mask
] [
-F mtree-specfile
] [
-f free-files
] [
-M minimum-size
] [
-m maximum-size
] [
-N userdb-dir
] [
-O offset
] [
-o fs-options
] [
-R roundup-size
] [
-S sector-size
] [
-s image-size
] [
-T timestamp
] [
-t fs-type
] image-file directory | manifest [
extra-directory ...
]

The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the directory tree directory or from the mtree manifest manifest. If any optional directory trees are passed in the extra-directory arguments, then the directory tree of each argument will be merged into the directory or manifest first before creating image-file. No special devices or privileges are required to perform this task.
The options are as follows:
endian
Set the byte order of the image to endian. Valid byte orders are ‘4321’, ‘big’, or ‘be’ for big endian, and ‘1234’, ‘little’, or ‘le’ for little endian. Some file systems may have a fixed byte order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.
free-blocks
Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the image. An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
Treat duplicate paths in an mtree manifest as warnings not error.
debug-mask
Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are set in debug-mask. XXX: document these
mtree-specfile
This is almost certainly not the option you are looking for. To create an image from a list of files in an mtree format manifest, specify it as the last argument on the commandline, not as a the argument to -F.
Use mtree-specfile as an mtree(8) ‘specfile’ specification. This option has no effect when the image is created from a mtree manifest rather than a directory.
If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically overridden by the specfile. An error will be raised if the type of entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.
In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored. Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, and link (in the case of symbolic links). If time isn't provided, the current time will be used. If flags isn't provided, the current file flags will be used. Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length files.
free-files
Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in the image. An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
minimum-size
Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.
maximum-size
Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size. An error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.
userdb-dir
Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from userdb-dir, rather than using the results from the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.
offset
Instead of creating the filesystem at the beginning of the file, start at offset. Valid only for ffs.
fs-options
Set file system specific options. fs-options is a comma separated list of options. Valid file system specific options are detailed below.
Deprecated. See the -Z flag.
roundup-size
Round the image up to roundup-size. roundup-size should be a multiple of the file system block size. This option only applies to the ffs file system type.
sector-size
Set the file system sector size to sector-size. Defaults to 512.
image-size
Set the size of the file system image to image-size.
timestamp
Specify a timestamp to be set for all filesystem files and directories created so that repeatable builds are possible. The timestamp can be a pathname, where the timestamps are derived from that file, or an integer value interpreted as the number of seconds from the Epoch. Note that timestamps specified in an mtree(5) spec file, override the default timestamp.
fs-type
Create an fs-type file system image. The following file system types are supported:
ffs
BSD fast file system (default).
cd9660
ISO 9660 file system.
Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.
Create a sparse file for ffs. This is useful for virtual machine images.
Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected. Two or more numbers may be separated by an “x” to indicate a product. Each number may have one of the following optional suffixes:
b
Block; multiply by 512
k
Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
m
Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
g
Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
t
Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
w
Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided. Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:
avgfilesize
Expected average file size.
avgfpdir
Expected number of files per directory.
bsize
Block size.
density
Bytes per inode.
fsize
Fragment size.
label
Label name of the image.
maxbpg
Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
minfree
Minimum % free.
optimization
Optimization preference; one of ‘space’ or ‘time’.
extent
Maximum extent size.
maxbpcg
Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
version
UFS version. 1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.
softupdates
0 for disable (default), 1 for enable

cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be provided. The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:
allow-deep-trees
Allow the directory structure to exceed the maximum specified in the spec.
allow-illegal-chars
Allow illegal characters in filenames. This option is not implemented.
allow-lowercase
Allow lowercase characters in filenames. This option is not implemented.
allow-max-name
Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for filenames by omitting the version id.
allow-multidot
Allow multiple dots in a filename.
applicationid
Application ID of the image.
archimedes
Use the ‘ARCHIMEDES’ extension to encode RISC OS metadata.
bootimagedir
Boot image directory. This option is not implemented.
chrp-boot
Write an MBR partition table to the image to allow older CHRP hardware to boot.
boot-load-segment
Set load segment for the boot image.
bootimage
Filename of a boot image in the format “sysid;filename”, where “sysid” is one of ‘i386’, ‘mac68k’, ‘macppc’, or ‘powerpc’.
generic-bootimage
Load a generic boot image into the first 32K of the cd9660 image.
hard-disk-boot
Boot image is a hard disk image.
isolevel
An integer representing the ISO 9660 interchange level where “level” is either ‘1’ or ‘2’. “level” ‘3’ is not implemented.
keep-bad-images
Do not discard images whose write was aborted due to an error. For debugging purposes.
label
Label name of the image.
no-boot
Boot image is not bootable.
no-emul-boot
Boot image is a “no emulation” ElTorito image.
no-trailing-padding
Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs the padding).
omit-trailing-period
Omit trailing periods in filenames.
platformid
Set platform ID of section header entry of the boot image.
preparer
Preparer ID of the image.
publisher
Publisher ID of the image.
rockridge
Use RockRidge extensions (for longer filenames, etc.).
verbose
Turns on verbose output.
volumeid
Volume set identifier of the image.

mtree(5), mtree(8), newfs(8)

The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

Luke Mewburn <lukem@NetBSD.org> (original program),
Daniel Watt,
Walter Deignan,
Ryan Gabrys,
Alan Perez-Rathke,
Ram Vedam (cd9660 support)
March 30, 2018 FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE

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