to accept a RIP request from non-router node.
When specified once,
replies to a route information query from neighbor nodes.
When specified twice,
it replies to a query from remote nodes in addition.
utility can be used to send a request.
This feature is disabled by default because of a risk of reflection attack though it is useful for debugging purpose.
|-s||force routed to supply routing information. This is the default if multiple network interfaces are present on which RIP or Router Discovery have not been disabled, and if the kernel switch ipforwarding=1.|
|-q||is the opposite of the -s option. This is the default when only one interface is present. With this explicit option, the daemon is always in "quiet-mode" for RIP and does not supply routing information to other computers.|
|-d||do not run in the background. This option is meant for interactive use.|
|-g||used on internetwork routers to offer a route to the "default" destination. It is equivalent to -F 0/0,1 and is present mostly for historical reasons. A better choice is -P pm_rdisc on the command line or pm_rdisc in the /etc/gateways file, since a larger metric will be used, reducing the spread of the potentially dangerous default route. This is typically used on a gateway to the Internet, or on a gateway that uses another routing protocol whose routes are not reported to other local routers. Notice that because a metric of 1 is used, this feature is dangerous. It is more commonly accidentally used to create chaos with a routing loop than to solve problems.|
|-h||cause host or point-to-point routes to not be advertised, provided there is a network route going the same direction. That is a limited kind of aggregation. This option is useful on gateways to Ethernets that have other gateway machines connected with point-to-point links such as SLIP.|
|-m||cause the machine to advertise a host or point-to-point route to its primary interface. It is useful on multi-homed machines such as NFS servers. This option should not be used except when the cost of the host routes it generates is justified by the popularity of the server. It is effective only when the machine is supplying routing information, because there is more than one interface. The -m option overrides the -q option to the limited extent of advertising the host route.|
|-A||do not ignore RIPv2 authentication if we do not care about RIPv2 authentication. This option is required for conformance with RFC 1723. However, it makes no sense and breaks using RIP as a discovery protocol to ignore all RIPv2 packets that carry authentication when this machine does not care about authentication.|
|-t||increase the debugging level, which causes more information to be logged on the tracefile specified with -T or standard out. The debugging level can be increased or decreased with the SIGUSR1 or SIGUSR2 signals or with the rtquery(8) command.|
|increases the debugging level to at least 1 and causes debugging information to be appended to the trace file. Note that because of security concerns, it is wisest to not run routed routinely with tracing directed to a file.|
|-v||display and logs the version of daemon.|
|minimize routes in transmissions via interfaces with addresses that match net/mask, and synthesizes a default route to this machine with the metric. The intent is to reduce RIP traffic on slow, point-to-point links such as PPP links by replacing many large UDP packets of RIP information with a single, small packet containing a "fake" default route. If metric is absent, a value of 14 is assumed to limit the spread of the "fake" default route. This is a dangerous feature that when used carelessly can cause routing loops. Notice also that more than one interface can match the specified network number and mask. See also -g .|
|is equivalent to adding the parameter line parms to the /etc/gateways file.|
Any other argument supplied is interpreted as the name of a file in which the actions of routed should be logged. It is better to use -T instead of appending the name of the trace file to the command.
The routed utility also supports the notion of "distant" passive or active gateways. When routed is started, it reads the file /etc/gateways to find such distant gateways which may not be located using only information from a routing socket, to discover if some of the local gateways are passive, and to obtain other parameters. Gateways specified in this manner should be marked passive if they are not expected to exchange routing information, while gateways marked active should be willing to exchange RIP packets. Routes through passive gateways are installed in the kernels routing tables once upon startup and are not included in transmitted RIP responses.
Distant active gateways are treated like network interfaces. RIP responses are sent to the distant active gateway. If no responses are received, the associated route is deleted from the kernel table and RIP responses advertised via other interfaces. If the distant gateway resumes sending RIP responses, the associated route is restored.
Such gateways can be useful on media that do not support broadcasts or multicasts but otherwise act like classic shared media like Ethernets such as some ATM networks. One can list all RIP routers reachable on the HIPPI or ATM network in /etc/gateways with a series of "host" lines. Note that it is usually desirable to use RIPv2 in such situations to avoid generating lists of inferred host routes.
Gateways marked external are also passive, but are not placed in the kernel routing table nor are they included in routing updates. The function of external entries is to indicate that another routing process will install such a route if necessary, and that other routes to that destination should not be installed by routed. Such entries are only required when both routers may learn of routes to the same destination.
The /etc/gateways file is comprised of a series of lines, each in one of the following two formats or consist of parameters described later. Blank lines and lines starting with # are comments.
net Nname[/mask] gateway Gname metric value < passive | active | extern >
host Hname gateway Gname metric value < passive | active | extern >
Nname or Hname is the name of the destination network or host. It may be a symbolic network name or an Internet address specified in "dot" notation (see inet(3)). (If it is a name, then it must either be defined in /etc/networks or /etc/hosts, or named(8), must have been started before .)
Mask is an optional number between 1 and 32 indicating the netmask associated with Nname.
Gname is the name or address of the gateway to which RIP responses should be forwarded.
Value is the hop count to the destination host or network.
Host hname is equivalent to net nname/32.
One of the keywords passive, active or external must be present to indicate whether the gateway should be treated as passive or active (as described above), or whether the gateway is external to the scope of the RIP protocol.
As can be seen when debugging is turned on with -t , such lines create pseudo-interfaces. To set parameters for remote or external interfaces, a line starting with if=alias(Hname), if=remote(Hname), etc. should be used.
Lines that start with neither "net" nor "host" must consist of one or more of the following parameter settings, separated by commas or blanks:
if = ifname indicates that the other parameters on the line apply to the interface name ifname. subnet = nname[/ mask[,metric]] advertises a route to network nname with mask mask and the supplied metric (default 1). This is useful for filling "holes" in CIDR allocations. This parameter must appear by itself on a line. The network number must specify a full, 32-bit value, as in 192.0.2.0 instead of 192.0.2.
Do not use this feature unless necessary. It is dangerous.
ripv1_mask = nname / mask1, mask2 specifies that netmask of the network of which nname / mask1 is a subnet should be mask2. For example, "ripv1_mask=192.0.2.16/28,27" marks 192.0.2.16/28 as a subnet of 192.0.2.0/27 instead of 192.0.2.0/24. It is better to turn on RIPv2 instead of using this facility, for example with ripv2_out. passwd = XXX[|KeyID[start|stop]] specifies a RIPv2 cleartext password that will be included on all RIPv2 responses sent, and checked on all RIPv2 responses received. Any blanks, tab characters, commas, or #, |, or NULL characters in the password must be escaped with a backslash (\). The common escape sequences \n, \r, \t, \b, and \xxx have their usual meanings. The KeyID must be unique but is ignored for cleartext passwords. If present, start and stop are timestamps in the form year/month/day@hour:minute. They specify when the password is valid. The valid password with the most future is used on output packets, unless all passwords have expired, in which case the password that expired most recently is used, or unless no passwords are valid yet, in which case no password is output. Incoming packets can carry any password that is valid, will be valid within the next 24 hours, or that was valid within the preceding 24 hours. To protect the secrets, the passwd settings are valid only in the /etc/gateways file and only when that file is readable only by UID 0. md5_passwd = XXX|KeyID[start|stop] specifies a RIPv2 MD5 password. Except that a KeyID is required, this keyword is similar to passwd. no_ag turns off aggregation of subnets in RIPv1 and RIPv2 responses. no_super_ag turns off aggregation of networks into supernets in RIPv2 responses. passive marks the interface to not be advertised in updates sent via other interfaces, and turns off all RIP and router discovery through the interface. no_rip disables all RIP processing on the specified interface. If no interfaces are allowed to process RIP packets, routed acts purely as a router discovery daemon.
Note that turning off RIP without explicitly turning on router discovery advertisements with rdisc_adv or -s causes routed to act as a client router discovery daemon, not advertising.
no_rip_mcast causes RIPv2 packets to be broadcast instead of multicast. no_rip_out causes no RIP updates to be sent. no_ripv1_in causes RIPv1 received responses to be ignored. no_ripv2_in causes RIPv2 received responses to be ignored. ripv2_out turns on RIPv2 output and causes RIPv2 advertisements to be multicast when possible. ripv2 is equivalent to no_ripv1_in and no_ripv1_out. This enables RIPv2. no_rdisc disables the Internet Router Discovery Protocol. no_solicit disables the transmission of Router Discovery Solicitations. send_solicit specifies that Router Discovery solicitations should be sent, even on point-to-point links, which by default only listen to Router Discovery messages. no_rdisc_adv disables the transmission of Router Discovery Advertisements. rdisc_adv specifies that Router Discovery Advertisements should be sent, even on point-to-point links, which by default only listen to Router Discovery messages. bcast_rdisc specifies that Router Discovery packets should be broadcast instead of multicast. rdisc_pref = N sets the preference in Router Discovery Advertisements to the optionally signed integer N. The default preference is 0. Default routes with smaller or more negative preferences are preferred by clients. rdisc_interval = N sets the nominal interval with which Router Discovery Advertisements are transmitted to N seconds and their lifetime to 3*N. fake_default = metric has an identical effect to -F net[/mask][=metric] with the network and mask coming from the specified interface. pm_rdisc is similar to fake_default. When RIPv2 routes are multicast, so that RIPv1 listeners cannot receive them, this feature causes a RIPv1 default route to be broadcast to RIPv1 listeners. Unless modified with fake_default, the default route is broadcast with a metric of 14. That serves as a "poor mans router discovery" protocol. adj_inmetric = delta adjusts the hop count or metric of received RIP routes by delta. The metric of every received RIP route is increased by the sum of two values associated with the interface. One is the adj_inmetric value and the other is the interface metric set with ifconfig(8). adj_outmetric = delta adjusts the hop count or metric of advertised RIP routes by delta. The metric of every received RIP route is increased by the metric associated with the interface by which it was received, or by 1 if the interface does not have a non-zero metric. The metric of the received route is then increased by the adj_outmetric associated with the interface. Every advertised route is increased by a total of four values, the metric set for the interface by which it was received with ifconfig(8), the adj_inmetric delta of the receiving interface, the metric set for the interface by which it is transmitted with ifconfig(8), and the adj_outmetric delta of the transmitting interface. trust_gateway = rname[|net1/mask1|net2/mask2|...] causes RIP packets from router rname and other routers named in other trust_gateway keywords to be accepted, and packets from other routers to be ignored. If networks are specified, then routes to other networks will be ignored from that router. redirect_ok allows the kernel to listen ICMP Redirect messages when the system is acting as a router and forwarding packets. Otherwise, ICMP Redirect messages are overridden and deleted when the system is acting as a router.
/etc/gateways for distant gateways
The routed utility appeared in BSD 4.2 .
It does not always detect unidirectional failures in network interfaces, for example, when the output side fails.